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BACKGROUND Neurocognitive impairment remains prevalent in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We assessed the impact of HIV, HAART, and aging using structural neuroimaging. METHODS Seventy-eight participants [HIV- (n = 26), HIV+ on stable HAART (HIV+/HAART+; n = 26), HIV+ naive to HAART (HIV+/HAART-; n =(More)
We all have an irrational fear or two. Some of us get scared by an unexpected visit from a spider in our house; others get nervous when they look down from a high building. Fear is an evolutionary and adaptive function that can promote self-preservation and help us deal with the feared object or situation. However, when this state becomes excessive, it(More)
The incidence of HIV-associated dementia has been greatly reduced in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however milder forms of cognitive impairment persist. It remains uncertain whether HAART regimens with a high degree of central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) exert beneficial neurological outcomes in HIV-infected(More)
OBJECTIVE Determine whether HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) affect resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) between the striatum and the cortical regions. METHODS Forty-nine HIV-uninfected (HIV-) and 132 HIV-infected (HIV+) (65% receiving cART) patients underwent laboratory studies (current and nadir CD4 T-cell counts, and plasma(More)
Previous studies have reported cognitive deficits among HIV-positive individuals infected with clade C virus. However, no study has examined whether individuals predominately infected with clade C virus exhibit brain atrophy relative to healthy controls. This study examined volumetric differences between 28 HIV+ individuals and 23 HIV− controls from South(More)
Graph theory models can produce simple, biologically informative metrics of the topology of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) networks. However, typical graph theory approaches model FC relationships between regions (nodes) as unweighted edges, complicating their interpretability in studies of disease or aging. We extended existing techniques and(More)