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BACKGROUND Studies exploring the role of diet during pregnancy are still scarce, in part due to the complexity of measuring diet and to the lack of valid instruments. The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility and validity (against biochemical biomarkers) of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in pregnant women. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Birth size has been shown to be related to maternal fish intake, although the results are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE The objective was to assess the association of consumption of different types of fish and prenatal mercury exposure with birth weight, birth length, and classification as small for gestational age (SGA) in newborns. DESIGN Cord(More)
OBJECTIVES Scant evidence is available on effects of air pollution on longitudinally measured fetal biometry, and thus it remains unclear as to whether there are critical windows of exposure or specificity of effects. Our objective was to examine the association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during pregnancy and fetal and neonatal anthropometry(More)
Iodine is the main constituent of thyroid hormones, which in turn are required for fetal brain development. However, the relation between iodine intake during pregnancy, thyroid function, and child neurodevelopment needs further evaluation. The authors assessed the association of maternal iodine intake from diet and supplements during pregnancy and of(More)
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal diet has been associated with fetal growth outcomes; however, evidence is scarce on the role of dietary quality. OBJECTIVE The objective was to assess the effect of diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, as measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) adapted for pregnancy, on fetal growth. DESIGN We studied(More)
In utero tobacco exposure has been associated with fetal growth restriction, but uncertainty remains about critical windows of exposure and specific effects on body segments. In the present study, we aimed to examine the association of maternal smoking with fetal biometry in different stages of pregnancy. The study population comprised 2,478 fetuses from a(More)
BACKGROUND The genetic background may influence methylmercury (MeHg) metabolism and neurotoxicity. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters actively transport various xenobiotics across biological membranes. OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of ABC polymorphisms as modifiers of prenatal exposure to MeHg. METHODS The study population consisted of(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS)(More)
BACKGROUND Fish is a rich source of essential nutrients for fetal development, but in contrast, it is also a well-known route of exposure to environmental pollutants. OBJECTIVE We assessed whether fish intake during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and the length of gestation in a panel of European birth cohort studies. DESIGN The study sample(More)