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To image synaptic activity within neural circuits, we tethered the genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) GCaMP2 to synaptic vesicles by fusion to synaptophysin. The resulting reporter, SyGCaMP2, detected the electrical activity of neurons with two advantages over existing cytoplasmic GECIs: it identified the locations of synapses and had a linear(More)
The kinetics of amyloid plaque formation and growth as one of the characteristic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are fundamental issues in AD research. Especially the question how fast amyloid plaques grow to their final size after they are born remains controversial. By long-term two-photon in vivo imaging we monitored individual methoxy-X04-stained(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Flupirtine is a non-opioid analgesic that has been in clinical use for more than 20 years. It is characterized as a selective neuronal potassium channel opener (SNEPCO). Nevertheless, its mechanisms of action remain controversial and are the purpose of this study. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of flupirtine on native and recombinant(More)
Although feedback inhibition of noradrenaline release by coreleased nucleotides is a well known phenomenon, it remained unclear which P2 receptor subtypes and associated signalling cascades may be involved. In the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, 2-methylthio-ADP reduced noradrenaline release triggered by K+ depolarization more potently than ADP and(More)
Imaging of optical reporters of neural activity across large populations of neurones is a widely used approach for investigating the function of neural circuits in slices and in vivo. Major challenges in analysing such experiments include the automatic identification of neurones and synapses, extraction of dynamic signals, and assessing the temporal and(More)
The physiological function of neurotransmitter transporter proteins like the serotonin transporter (SERT) is reuptake of neurotransmitter that terminates synaptic serotoninergic transmission. SERT can operate in reverse direction and be induced by SERT substrates including 5-HT, tyramine and the positively charged methyl-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), as well(More)
Mammalian Staufen2 (Stau2) is a member of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein family. Its expression is largely restricted to the brain. It is thought to play a role in the delivery of RNA to dendrites of polarized neurons. To investigate the function of Stau2 in mature neurons, we interfered with Stau2 expression by RNA interference (RNAi). Mature(More)
5-HT(3) (serotonin type 3) receptors are targets of antiemetics, antipsychotics, and antidepressants and are believed to play a role in cognition. Nevertheless, contrasting results have been obtained with respect to their functions in the CNS and in the control of transmitter release. We used rat hippocampal neurons in single-neuron microcultures to(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to be caused by accumulation of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), which is a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Transgenic mice overexpressing APP have been used to recapitulate amyloid-β pathology. Among them, APP23 and APPswe/PS1deltaE9 (deltaE9) mice are extensively studied. APP23 mice express APP with Swedish(More)
Amyloid-beta plaque deposition represents a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. While numerous studies have described dendritic spine loss in proximity to plaques, much less is known about the kinetics of these processes. In particular, the question as to whether synapse loss precedes or follows plaque formation remains unanswered. To(More)