Mario J Grijalva

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Entomological surveys were conducted in five rural communities (138 domiciliary units [DUs]) in the southern Andes of Ecuador. Adobe walls and ceramic tile roofs were predominant construction materials. A 35% house infestation rate with Panstrongylus chinai (Del Ponte, 1929) (0.7%), Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899) (0.7%), Rhodnius(More)
Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the Ecuadorian Amazon region has recently been reported. A seroepidemiologic survey conducted in four provinces in this region indicates a seroprevalence rate of 2.4% among the 6,866 samples collected in 162 communities. Among children < OR = 10 years of age, 1.2% were seropositive. Risk factors for T. cruzi seropositivity(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular epidemiology at the community level has an important guiding role in zoonotic disease control programmes where genetic markers are suitably variable to unravel the dynamics of local transmission. We evaluated the molecular diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, in southern Ecuador (Loja Province). This(More)
BACKGROUND Triatoma dimidiata is among the main vectors of Chagas disease in Latin America. However, and despite important advances, there is no consensus about the taxonomic status of phenotypically divergent T. dimidiata populations, which in most recent papers are regarded as subspecies. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS A total of 126 cyt b sequences (621 bp(More)
The main vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador are Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The latter species occupies domestic and peridomestic habitats, as well as sylvatic ecotopes--particularly associated with Phytelephas aequatorialis palm trees--in the western coastal region of Ecuador. In the southern highlands, however, such palm tree habitats(More)
This year-long study evaluated the effectiveness of a strategy involving selective deltamethrin spraying and community education for control of Chagas disease vectors in domestic units located in rural communities of coastal Ecuador. Surveys for triatomines revealed peridomestic infestation with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Panstrongylus howardi, with(More)
In July 1998, the mother of an 18-month-old boy in rural Tennessee found a triatomine bug in his crib, which she saved because it resembled a bug shown on a television program about insects that prey on mammals. The gut contents of the Triatoma sanguisuga were found, by light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to be infected with Trypanosoma(More)
Different stages of Trypanosoma cruzi are seen during mammalian infection. Histologic sections of infected hearts have shown amastigotes and, when using immunohistochemistry (IHC), parasite antigens; however, demonstration of trypomastigotes in these tissues has proven elusive. Using a mouse strain that develops chagasic cardiomyopathy (histologically(More)
Treatment for Chagas disease with currently available medications is recommended universally only for acute cases (all ages) and for children up to 14 years old. The World Health Organization, however, also recommends specific antiparasite treatment for all chronic-phase Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals, even though in current medical practice this(More)
BACKGROUND Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study(More)