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Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has recently been identified as a significant cause of serious respiratory tract disease in humans. In particular, the emerging information on the contribution of HMPV to pediatric respiratory tract disease suggests that it will be important to develop a vaccine against this virus for use in conjunction with those being(More)
Recombinant human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in which the SH, G, or M2 gene or open reading frame was deleted by reverse genetics was evaluated for replication and vaccine efficacy following topical administration to the respiratory tract of African green monkeys, a permissive primate host. Replication of the deltaSH virus was only marginally less efficient(More)
Members of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses have the unusual requirement that the nucleotide length of the viral genome must be an even multiple of six in order for efficient RNA replication, and hence virus replication, to occur. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) is the only member of the genus that has been(More)
To help in identifying functional domains within Ad5 E1A proteins, we have constructed a series of mutants that create deletions throughout these products. We have also produced several mis-sense point mutations in the unique 13 S mRNA region. These mutated E1A regions have been tested in plasmid form for their ability to activate transcription of an(More)
The live-attenuated human parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) cold-passage 45 (cp45) candidate vaccine was shown previously to be safe, immunogenic, and phenotypically stable in seronegative human infants. Previous findings indicated that each of the three amino acid substitutions in the L polymerase protein of cp45 independently confers the temperature-sensitive(More)
Chimeric versions of recombinant human metapneumovirus (HMPV) were generated by replacing the nucleoprotein (N) or phosphoprotein (P) open reading frame with its counterpart from the closely related avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. In Vero cells, AMPV replicated to an approximately 100-fold-higher titer than HMPV. Surprisingly, the N and P chimeric(More)
A phenylalanine to leucine mutation at position 521 in the L polymerase of cpts530, a live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cold-passaged (cp), temperature-sensitive (ts) candidate vaccine, specifies the ts and attenuation (att) phenotypes. Sequence alignment of this region in the L proteins of several distantly related paramyxoviruses revealed(More)
Nonhuman primates (NHPs) and rabbits are the animal models most commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of medical countermeasures against anthrax in support of licensure under the FDA's "Animal Rule." However, a need for an alternative animal model may arise in certain cases. The development of such an alternative model requires a thorough understanding of(More)
Parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV1) is a major cause of croup in infants and young children, and a vaccine is needed to prevent the serious disease caused by this virus. In the present study, a live attenuated PIV1 vaccine candidate was generated by modification of the extensively-studied PIV3 cold-passaged (cp) cp45 vaccine candidate using the techniques of(More)
Dysfunction of CFTR in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium perturbs the normal regulation of ion transport, leading to a reduced volume of airway surface liquid (ASL), mucus dehydration, decreased mucus transport, and mucus plugging of the airways. CFTR is normally expressed in ciliated epithelial cells of the surface and submucosal gland ductal(More)