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Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs, snoRNAs and tRNAs are a diverse collection of molecules with several important biological functions. Current methods for high-throughput sequencing for the first time offer the opportunity to investigate the entire ncRNAome in an essentially unbiased way. However, there is a substantial need for methods that(More)
BACKGROUND The brightness of the probe spots on expression microarrays intends to measure the abundance of specific mRNA targets. Probes with runs of at least three guanines (G) in their sequence show abnormal high intensities which reflect rather probe effects than target concentrations. This G-bias requires correction prior to downstream expression(More)
BACKGROUND Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are important tools widely used for genotyping and copy number estimation. This technology utilizes the specific affinity of fragmented DNA for binding to surface-attached oligonucleotide DNA probes. We analyze the variability of the probe signals of Affymetrix GeneChip SNP arrays as a function of the(More)
There is a critical need for standard approaches to assess, report and compare the technical performance of genome-scale differential gene expression experiments. Here we assess technical performance with a proposed standard 'dashboard' of metrics derived from analysis of external spike-in RNA control ratio mixtures. These control ratio mixtures with(More)
MOTIVATION Gene expression experiments aim to accurately quantify thousands of transcripts in parallel. Factors posterior to RNA extraction can, however, impair their accurate representation. RNA degradation and differences in the efficiency of amplification affect raw intensity measurements using Affymetrix expression arrays. The positional intensity decay(More)
The structures of RNA molecules and proteins, which are both important biopolymers, are commonly assumed to be uniquely determined by their sequences. The structures of these biomolecules are in turn necessary to carry out the molecules' biological functions. Discretized structure models provide a coarse-grained description of the molecular structure, which(More)
Here we present the results of a large-scale bioinformatics annotation of non-coding RNA loci in 48 avian genomes. Our approach uses probabilistic models of hand-curated families from the Rfam database to infer conserved RNA families within each avian genome. We supplement these annotations with predictions from the tRNA annotation tool, tRNAscan-SE and(More)
To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by(More)
Teleost fishes represent about half of all living vertebrate species 1 and provide important models for human disease (for example, zebrafish and medaka) 2–9. Connecting teleost genes and gene functions to human biology (Fig. 1a) can be challenging given (i) the two rounds of early vertebrate genome duplication (VGD1 and VGD2 (ref. 10), but see ref. 11)(More)