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Previous studies have shown that chemical regulation of connexin43 (Cx43) depends on the presence of the carboxyl terminal (CT) domain. A particle-receptor (or "ball-and-chain") model has been proposed to explain the mechanism of gating. We tested whether the CT region behaved as a functional domain for other members of the connexin family. The pH(More)
Immunohistochemical co-localization of distinct connexins (Cxs) in junctional areas suggests the formation of heteromultimeric channels. To determine the docking effects of the heterotypic combination of Cx43 and Cx45 on the voltage-gating properties of their channels, we transfected DNA encoding Cx43 or Cx45 into N2A neuroblastoma or HeLa cells. Using a(More)
The regulation of junctional conductance (Gi) of the major cardiac (connexin43; Cx43) and liver (connexin32; Cx32) gap junction proteins by intracellular hydrogen ion concentration (pH; pHi), as well as well as that of a truncation mutant of Cx43 (M257) with 125 amino acids deleted from the COOH terminus, was characterized in pairs of Xenopus laevis oocytes(More)
We have previously proposed that acidification-induced regulation of the cardiac gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) may be modeled as a particle-receptor interaction between two separate domains of Cx43: the carboxyl terminal (acting as a particle), and a region including histidine 95 (acting as a receptor). Accordingly, intracellular acidification(More)
Armadillo family proteins known as plakophilins have been characterized as structural components of desmosomes that stabilize and strengthen adhesion by enhancing attachments with the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. However, plakophilins and their close relatives are emerging as versatile scaffolds for multiple signaling and metabolic processes that not(More)
Desmosomes and gap junctions are distinct structural components of the cardiac intercalated disc. Here, we asked whether the presence of plakophilin (PKP)2, a component of the desmosome, is essential for the proper function and distribution of the gap junction protein connexin (Cx)43. We used RNA silencing technology to decrease the expression of PKP2 in(More)
AIMS The shRNA-mediated loss of expression of the desmosomal protein plakophilin-2 leads to sodium current (I(Na)) dysfunction. Whether pkp2 gene haploinsufficiency leads to I(Na) deficit in vivo remains undefined. Mutations in pkp2 are detected in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Ventricular fibrillation and sudden death often occur(More)
Gap junction channels allow for the passage of ions and small molecules between neighboring cells. These channels are formed by multimers of an integral membrane protein named connexin. In the heart and other tissues, the most abundant connexin is a 43-kDa, 382-amino acid protein termed connexin43 (Cx43). A characteristic property of connexin channels is(More)
Regulation of cell-cell communication by the gap junction protein connexin43 can be modulated by a variety of connexin-associating proteins. In particular, c-Src can disrupt the connexin43 (Cx43)-zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) interaction, leading to down-regulation of gap junction intercellular communication. The binding sites for ZO-1 and c-Src correspond to(More)
BACKGROUND Brugada syndrome (BrS) primarily associates with the loss of sodium channel function. Previous studies showed features consistent with sodium current (INa) deficit in patients carrying desmosomal mutations, diagnosed with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy). Experimental models showed correlation(More)