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This review surveys what is known about the structure and function of the subnuclear domains called Cajal bodies (CBs). The major focus is on CBs in mammalian cells but we provide an overview of homologous CB structures in other organisms. We discuss the protein and RNA components of CBs, including factors recently found to associate in a cell(More)
The tumour suppressor p53 induces cellular senescence in response to oncogenic signals. p53 activity is modulated by protein stability and post-translational modification, including phosphorylation and acetylation. The mechanism of p53 activation by oncogenes remains largely unknown. Here we report that the tumour suppressor PML regulates the p53 response(More)
RAR and AML1 transcription factors are found in leukemias as fusion proteins with PML and ETO, respectively. Association of PML-RAR and AML1-ETO with the nuclear corepressor (N-CoR)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex is required to block hematopoietic differentiation. We show that PML-RAR and AML1-ETO exist in vivo within high molecular weight (HMW) nuclear(More)
The transforming proteins of acute promyelocytic leukaemias (APL) are fusions of the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) and the promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger (PLZF) proteins with retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARalpha). These proteins retain the RARalpha DNA- and retinoic acid (RA)-binding domains, and their ability to block haematopoietic differentiation(More)
The morphology and composition of subnuclear organelles, such as Cajal bodies (CBs), nucleoli, and other nuclear bodies, is dynamic and can change in response to a variety of cell stimuli, including stress. We show that UV-C irradiation disrupts CBs and alters the distribution of a specific subset of CB components. The effect of UV-C on CBs differs from(More)
Diabetic patients treated with metformin have a reduced incidence of cancer and cancer-related mortality. Here we show that metformin affects engraftment and growth of breast cancer tumours in mice. This correlates with the induction of metabolic changes compatible with clear anticancer effects. We demonstrate that microRNA modulation underlies the(More)
Werner syndrome (WS) results from dysfunction of the WRN protein, and is associated with premature aging and early death. Here we report that loss of WRN function elicits accumulation of the Yes-associated protein (YAP protein), a major effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, both experimentally and in WS-derived fibroblasts. YAP upregulation(More)
Here we show that pemetrexed-treated mesothelioma cells undergo accelerated senescence. This is characterized by the secretion of proinflammatory and mitogenic cytokines, reminiscent of an SASP (senescence-associated secretory phenotype). Conditioned media from senescent MPM (malignant pleural mesothelioma) cells trigger the emergence of EMT(More)
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is highly expressed in brain. IL-34 signaling via its cognate receptor, colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), is required for the development of microglia. However, the differential expression of IL-34 and the CSF-1R in brain suggests that IL-34 may signal via an alternate receptor. By IL-34 affinity chromatography of(More)
Here we show that a subpopulation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells which stains pale to Toluidine Blue (Light Cells- LCs), is endowed with features of CSCs. LCs give rise to self-renewing mammospheres and express typical CSC markers; moreover this subpopulation is chemoresistant and highly tumorigenic in vivo. LCs can be identified in several other breast(More)