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We investigate the problem how to lift the non-8 b 1 ()-conservativ-ity of T 2 2 () over S 2 2 () to the expected non-8 b i ()-conservativity of T i+1 2 () over S i+1 2 (), for i > 1. We give a non-trivial reenement of the "lifting method" developed in 4, 8], and we prove a suucient condition on a 8 b 1 (f)-consequence of T2(f) to yield the non-conservation(More)
We investigate the possibility to characterize (multi)functions that are b i-deenable with small i (i = 1; 2; 3) in fragments of bounded arithmetic T2 in terms of natural search problems deened over polynomial-time structures. We obtain the following results: 1. A reformulation of known characterizations of (multi)functions that are b 1-and b 2-deenable in(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was(More)
The progressive decline in the hare population across Europe has been associated with the occurrence of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS), a highly contagious disease considered endemic in all European countries. This study aimed to evaluate the in-field temporal dynamics of European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) infection in wild European brown hares(More)
The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is an American lagomorph. In 1966, it was introduced to Italy, where it is currently widespread. Its ecological niche is similar to those of native rabbits and hares and increasing overlap in distribution brings these species into ever closer contact. Therefore, cottontails are at risk of infection with the two(More)
BACKGROUND Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife.However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for(More)
BACKGROUND Salmonella spp. have been isolated from a wide range of wild animals. Opportunistic wild carnivores such as red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and badgers (Meles meles) may act as environmental indicators or as potential sources of salmonellosis in humans. The present study characterizes Salmonella spp. isolated from the intestinal contents of hunted or(More)
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) is the principal etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP), one of the most economically important diseases in the pig production industry worldwide. Although swine and wild boars (Sus scrofa) share susceptibility to Mhyo infection, information regarding the dynamics of Mhyo infections and pathology in wild boars is(More)
From 1 May 2015 to 31 October 2015 over 20 million visitors from all over the world visited the Universal Exhibition (EXPO) hosted by Milan (Lombardy region, Italy), raising concerns about the possible introduction of mosquito-borne diseases from endemic countries. The entomological surveillance protocol performed in Lombardy over the last three years was(More)
Carnivores are potential carriers of agents that infect their prey species, even though they themselves are not susceptible, such as the lagovirus that causes European brown hare syndrome (EBHS), a severe disease of brown hares endemic in Europe. During our wildlife surveillance in Lombardy, we identified an EBHS outbreak in a protected area by both(More)