Mario C. Raviglione

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BACKGROUND The increasing global burden of tuberculosis (TB) is linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS We reviewed data from notifications of TB cases, cohort treatment outcomes, surveys of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and HIV prevalence in patients with TB and other subgroups. Information was collated from published(More)
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is present in animals in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the risk and prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and tuberculosis (TB) incidence, prevalence, and mortality, including disease attributable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for 212 countries in 1997. PARTICIPANTS A panel of 86 TB experts and epidemiologists from more than 40 countries was chosen by the(More)
CONTEXT No large-scale study has investigated the impact of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) on the outcome of standard short-course chemotherapy under routine countrywide TB control program conditions in the World Health Organization's (WHO) directly observed treatment short-course strategy for TB control. OBJECTIVE To assess the results of(More)
Rapid expansion of the standardised approach to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment that is recommended by WHO allowed more than 36 million people to be cured between 1995 and 2008, averting up to 6 million deaths. Yet tuberculosis remains a severe global public health threat. There are more than 9 million new cases every year worldwide, and the incidence(More)
This article describes the global epidemiology of tuberculosis and reviews recent estimates of tuberculosis incidence and mortality in the world. The highest prevalence of tuberculosis infection and estimated annual risk of tuberculosis infection are in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. Overall, almost 3.8 million cases of tuberculosis were reported in(More)
CONTEXT The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are stimulating more rigorous evaluations of the impact of DOTS (the WHO-recommended approach to tuberculosis control based on 5 essential elements) and other possible strategies for tuberculosis (TB) control. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prospects for detecting 70% of new sputum smear-positive(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-resistant tuberculosis threatens efforts to control the disease. This report describes the prevalence of resistance to four first-line drugs in 35 countries participating in the World Health Organization-International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance between 1994 and(More)
BACKGROUND Data on global trends in resistance to antituberculosis drugs are lacking. METHODS We expanded the survey conducted by the World Health Organization and the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease to assess trends in resistance to antituberculosis drugs in countries on six continents. We obtained data using standard protocols(More)
Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is defined as disease caused by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are at least resistant to treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin; extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis refers to disease caused by multidrug-resistant strains that are also resistant to(More)