Learn More
The high water permeability characteristic of mammalian red cell membranes is now known to be caused by the protein AQP1. This channel freely permits movement of water across the cell membrane, but it is not permeated by other small, uncharged molecules or charged solutes. AQP1 is a tetramer with each subunit containing an aqueous pore likened to an(More)
The envelope glycoproteins (Env) of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) mediate virus binding to the cell surface receptor CD4 on target cells to initiate infection. Env is a heterodimer of a transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) and a surface glycoprotein (gp120), and forms trimers on the surface of the viral membrane. Using(More)
A large family of membrane channel proteins selective for transport of water (aquaporins) or water plus glycerol (aquaglyceroporins) has been found in diverse life forms. Escherichia coli has two members of this family-a water channel, AqpZ, and a glycerol facilitator, GlpF. Despite having similar primary amino acid sequences and predicted structures, the(More)
Understanding the selectivity of aquaporin water channels will require structural and functional studies of wild-type and modified proteins; however, expression systems have not previously yielded aquaporins in the necessary milligram quantities. Here we report expression of a histidine-tagged form of Escherichia coli aquaporin-Z (AqpZ) in its homologous(More)
Aquaporins are membrane channels selectively permeated by water or water plus glycerol. Conflicting reports have described ion conductance associated with some water channels, raising the question of whether ion conductance is a general property of the aquaporin family. To clarify this question, a defined system was developed to simultaneously measure water(More)
HIV-1 infection begins with the binding of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins (Env) to CD4 and a co-receptor on target T-cells. Understanding how these ligands influence the structure of Env is of fundamental interest for HIV vaccine development. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we describe the contrasting structural outcomes of trimeric Env binding to(More)
The initial step in target cell infection by human, and the closely related simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) occurs with the binding of trimeric envelope glycoproteins (Env), composed of heterodimers of the viral transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) and surface glycoprotein (gp120) to target T-cells. Knowledge of the molecular(More)
The activation of trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) by its binding to the cell-surface receptor CD4 and co-receptors (CCR5 or CXCR4) represents the first of a series of events that lead to fusion between viral and target-cell membranes. Here, we present the cryo-EM structure, at subnanometer resolution (~6 Å at 0.143 FSC), of the 'closed',(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the peptide transport activity of a naturally occurring P-glycoprotein such as that present in rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles. The peptide ionophores valinomycin and gramicidin D, which are known substrates of P-glycoprotein, served to monitor the P-glycoprotein activity indirectly as the ATP-dependent uptake of(More)