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This paper describes two electromagnetic midsagittal articulometer (EMMA) systems that were developed for transducing articulatory movements during speech production. Alternating magnetic fields are generated by transmitter coils that are mounted in an assembly that fits on the head of a speaker. The fields induce alternating voltages in a number of small(More)
Articulatory and acoustic data were used to explore the following hypothesis for the vowel /u/: The objective of articulatory movements is an acoustic goal; varying and reciprocal contributions of different articulators may help to constrain acoustic variation in achieving the goal. Previous articulatory studies of similar hypotheses, expressed entirely in(More)
Although cochlear implants improve the ability of profoundly deaf children to understand speech, critics claim that the published literature does not document even a single case of a child who has developed a linguistic system based on input from an implant. Thus, it is of clinical and scientific importance to determine whether cochlear implants facilitate(More)
Like any other surgery requiring anesthesia, cochlear implantation in the first few years of life carries potential risks, which makes it important to assess the potential benefits. This study introduces a new method to assess the effect of age at implantation on cochlear implant outcomes: developmental trajectory analysis (DTA). DTA compares curves(More)
The goals of this study were to characterize tongue surface displacement during production of bilabial stops and to refine current estimates of vocal-tract wall impedance using direct measurements of displacement in the vocal tract during closure. In addition, evidence was obtained to test the competing claims of passive and active enlargement of the vocal(More)
The goal of this study was to test 2 hypotheses about language development in pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users. The "language instinct" hypothesis states that children with CIs will develop language in the same sequence as children with normal hearing, but in a delayed fashion. In other words, noun plurals will develop first, and the use of the(More)
OBJECTIVES Since the advent of cochlear implants, age at implantation has declined as investigators report greater benefit the younger a child is implanted. Infants younger than 12 mos currently are excluded from Food and Drug Administration clinical trials, but have been implanted with Food and Drug Administration-approved devices. With a chance that an(More)
Information transfer analysis [G. A. Miller and P. E. Nicely, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 27, 338-352 (1955)] is a tool used to measure the extent to which speech features are transmitted to a listener, e.g., duration or formant frequencies for vowels; voicing, place and manner of articulation for consonants. An information transfer of 100% occurs when no(More)
The effect of feedback and materials on perceptual learning was examined in listeners with normal hearing who were exposed to cochlear implant simulations. Generalization was most robust when feedback paired the spectrally degraded sentences with their written transcriptions, promoting mapping between the degraded signal and its acoustic-phonetic(More)