Mario A. Ruggero

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In mammals, environmental sounds stimulate the auditory receptor, the cochlea, via vibrations of the stapes, the innermost of the middle ear ossicles. These vibrations produce displacement waves that travel on the elongated and spirally wound basilar membrane (BM). As they travel, waves grow in amplitude, reaching a maximum and then dying out. The location(More)
Basilar-membrane responses to single tones were measured, using laser velocimetry, at a site of the chinchilla cochlea located 3.5 mm from its basal end. Responses to low-level (< 10-20 dB SPL) characteristic-frequency (CF) tones (9-10 kHz) grow linearly with stimulus intensity and exhibit gains of 66-76 dB relative to stapes motion. At higher levels, CF(More)
We review the mechanical origin of auditory-nerve excitation, focusing on comparisons of the magnitudes and phases of basilar-membrane (BM) vibrations and auditory-nerve fiber responses to tones at a basal site of the chinchilla cochlea with characteristic frequency approximately 9 kHz located 3.5 mm from the oval window. At this location, characteristic(More)
Basilar-membrane responses to clicks were measured, using laser velocimetry, at a site of the chinchilla cochlea located about 3.5 mm from the oval window (characteristic frequency or CF: typically 8-10 kHz). They consisted of relatively undamped oscillations with instantaneous frequency that increased rapidly (time constant: 200 microseconds) from a few(More)
When stimulated by tones, the ear appears to emit tones of its own, stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs). SFOAEs were measured in 17 chinchillas and their group delays were compared with a place map of basilar-membrane vibration group delays measured at the characteristic frequency. The map is based on Wiener-kernel analysis of responses to(More)
1. The vibratory response to two-tone stimuli was measured in the basilar membrane of the chinchilla cochlea by means of the Mössbauer technique or laser velocimetry. Measurements were made at sites with characteristic frequency (CF, the frequency at which an auditory structure is most sensitive) of 7-10 kHz, located approximately 3.5 mm from the oval(More)
Responses to broadband Gaussian white noise were recorded in auditory-nerve fibers of deeply anesthetized chinchillas and analyzed by computation of zeroth-, first-, and second-order Wiener kernels. The first-order kernels (similar to reverse correlations or "revcors") of fibers with characteristic frequency (CF) <2 kHz consisted of lightly damped transient(More)
The region of cerebral cortex in the owl monkey that is responsive to acoustic stimulation is located on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the rostral half of the superior temporal gyrus. Systematic microelectrode mapping of this area has revealed multiple frequency representations. The boundaries of these fields determined electrophysiologically correlate(More)
Recent evidence shows that the frequency-specific non-linear properties of auditory nerve and inner hair cell responses to sound, including their sharp frequency tuning, are fully established in the vibration of the basilar membrane. In turn, the sensitivity, frequency selectivity and non-linear properties of basilar membrane responses probably result from(More)
The responses of the malleus and the stapes to sinusoidal acoustic stimulation have been measured in the middle ears of anesthetized chinchillas using the Mössbauer technique. With "intact" bullas (i.e., closed except for venting via capillary tubing), the vibrations of the tip of the malleus reach a maximal peak velocity of about 2 mm/s in responses to(More)