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Enhanced autophagy has been observed in hypoxic regions of solid tumors. Here we address the hypothesis that autophagy is required for survival of hypoxic cells. We evaluated sensitivity to hypoxia of three human tumor cell lines (MCF7, PC3, and LNCaP) and their autophagy-deficient variants with shRNA knockdown of the genes ATG7 and BECLIN1. Hypoxia-induced(More)
Cellular causes of resistance and limited drug distribution within solid tumors limit therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Acidic endosomes in cancer cells mediate autophagy, which facilitates survival of stressed cells, and may contribute to drug resistance. Basic drugs (e.g. doxorubicin) are sequestered in acidic endosomes, thereby diverting drugs(More)
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