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The ribosome selects aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) matching to the mRNA codon from the bulk of non-matching aa-tRNAs in two consecutive selection steps, initial selection and proofreading. Here we report the kinetic analysis of selection taking place under conditions where the overall selectivity was close to values observed in vivo and initial selection and(More)
Elongation factor G (EF-G) is a GTPase that is involved in the translocation of bacterial ribosomes along messenger RNA during protein biosynthesis. In contrast to current models, EF-G-dependent GTP hydrolysis is shown to precede, and greatly accelerate, the rearrangement of the ribosome that leads to translocation. Domain IV of the EF-G structure is(More)
The stoichiometry of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP in the complex with aminoacyl-tRNA and the consumption of GTP during peptide bond formation on the ribosome were studied in the Escherichia coli system. The ribosomes were programmed either with two different heteropolymeric mRNAs coding for Met-Phe-Thr-Ile ... (mMFTI) or Met-Phe-Phe-Gly ... (mMFFG)(More)
The delivery of a specific amino acid to the translating ribosome is fundamental to protein synthesis. The binding of aminoacyl-transfer RNA to the ribosome is catalysed by the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). The elongation factor, the aminoacyl-tRNA and GTP form a stable 'ternary' complex that binds to the ribosome. We have used electron cryomicroscopy and(More)
Elongation factor (EF) G promotes tRNA translocation on the ribosome. We present three-dimensional reconstructions, obtained by cryo-electron microscopy, of EF-G-ribosome complexes before and after translocation. In the pretranslocation state, domain 1 of EF-G interacts with the L7/12 stalk on the 50S subunit, while domain 4 contacts the shoulder of the 30S(More)
Elongation factor P (EF-P) is a translation factor of unknown function that has been implicated in a great variety of cellular processes. Here, we show that EF-P prevents ribosome from stalling during synthesis of proteins containing consecutive prolines, such as PPG, PPP, or longer proline strings, in natural and engineered model proteins. EF-P promotes(More)
The kinetic mechanism of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu)-dependent binding of Phe-tRNAPhe to the A site of poly(U)-programmed Escherichia coli ribosomes has been established by pre-steady-state kinetic experiments. Six steps were distinguished kinetically, and their elemental rate constants were determined either by global fitting, or directly by dissociation(More)
After termination of protein synthesis in bacteria, ribosomes are recycled from posttermination complexes by the combined action of elongation factor G (EF-G), ribosome recycling factor (RRF), and initiation factor 3 (IF3). The functions of the factors and the sequence in which ribosomal subunits, tRNA, and mRNA are released from posttermination complexes(More)
The fidelity of aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) selection by the bacterial ribosome is determined by initial selection before and proofreading after GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu. Here we report the rate constants of A-site binding of a near-cognate aa-tRNA. The comparison with the data for cognate aa-tRNA reveals an additional, important contribution to(More)
The L7/12 stalk of the large subunit of bacterial ribosomes encompasses protein L10 and multiple copies of L7/12. We present crystal structures of Thermotoga maritima L10 in complex with three L7/12 N-terminal-domain dimers, refine the structure of an archaeal L10E N-terminal domain on the 50S subunit, and identify these elements in(More)