Learn More
Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) experimentally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) developed chronic renal infection and persistent shedding of virus in urine for up to 8 months, despite initial rapid clearance of virus from blood and the timely appearance of high levels of specific neutralizing antibodies. Infectious WNV could be recovered by direct(More)
The distribution of West Nile virus has expanded in the past 6 years to include the 48 contiguous United States and seven Canadian provinces, as well as Mexico, the Caribbean islands, and Colombia. The suggestion of the emergence of a dominant genetic variant has led to an intensive analysis of isolates made across North America. We have sequenced the(More)
Adult hamsters that survived experimental West Nile virus (WNV) infection developed persistent viruria. Infectious WNV could be cultured from their urine for up to 52 days. Immunohistochemical examination of kidneys of viruric animals showed foci of WNV antigen in renal tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. These findings are compatible with(More)
Recent studies have shown that West Nile virus (WNV) can induce an asymptomatic persistent infection in the kidneys of experimentally infected hamsters. The chronically infected rodents shed virus in their urine for up to 8 months, despite the disappearance of viremia and the development of high levels of neutralizing antibodies. WNV, like most members of(More)
In order to understand how West Nile virus (WNV) has evolved since its introduction into North America, we have studied the genetic and phenotypic variation among WNV isolates collected in various areas during consecutive transmission seasons. The present report describes for the first time phenotypic changes occurring in the North American WNV population.(More)
While several West Nile vaccines are being developed, none are yet available for humans. In this study aimed at developing a vaccine for humans, West Nile virus (WNV) envelope protein (E) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) were produced in the Drosophila S2 cell expression system. The C-terminal 20% of the E protein, which contains the membrane anchor(More)
Efficacy of the new antipoxvirus compound ST-246 was evaluated as treatment of monkeypox (MPX) virus infection in a ground squirrel model of the disease. Ground squirrels were given a lethal dose of MPX virus and were then treated orally at various times post-inoculation (pi) with 100 mg/kg/day of ST-246. Morbidity and mortality, clinical laboratory(More)
A proposed new small-animal (rodent) model for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of severe orthopoxvirus infections is described. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) were infected intraperitoneally and intranasally with monkeypox virus (MPXV). A fulminant illness developed in all animals, and they died 6-9 days after(More)
Harris County, Texas, is an endemic area of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE); and an active surveillance program that monitors SLE virus activity in mosquitoes, birds, and humans has been in place there for the past 28 years. In June of 2002, West Nile (WN) virus appeared in Houston and quickly spread throughout the region. This report describes the results of(More)