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BACKGROUND Heat-sterilized, single-chambered, glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions promote neutrophil apoptosis and impair the peritoneal antibacterial response. It has been proposed that glucose degradation products may be responsible for this effect. However, the precise contribution of individual glucose degradation products had not been(More)
Commercial, glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions have deleterious effects on leukocytes and mesothelial cells that contribute to an impaired peritoneal defense. However, the molecular mechanisms of these deleterious effects are poorly understood. The effect of PD solutions on neutrophil viability, the molecular mechanisms of cell death, its(More)
With aging there is an increase of oxidative stress due to an imbalance between the oxidant production and the antioxidant levels in favor of the former. Since immune cell functions are specially linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance is essential for these cells. Although low levels of antioxidants cause a(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity has not been completely elucidated. METHODS The ability of CsA to induce apoptosis in cultured murine tubular epithelial cells and its regulation by the cell microenvironment and inhibitors of caspases were studied. RESULTS This study found that CsA induces apoptotic death in murine(More)
Osteoblast survival is one of the determinants of postmenopausal osteoporosis development. Recent data from animal experiments suggest that cytokines, in particular Fas ligand (FasL), contribute to postmenopausal osteoporosis. We now address the effect of Fas activation in postmenopausal osteoblast survival and the potential modulatory effect of estrogen(More)
Three rapid enzyme immunoassays (X/pect Clostridium difficile Toxin A/B test, Wampole Tox A/B Quik Chek, and ImmunoCard Toxins A&B) were compared for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. Of the 367 stool specimens tested, 102 (27.8%) were positive for toxigenic C. difficile when a combination of direct cytotoxicity assay and cytotoxic culture(More)
BACKGROUND While tubular cell death is a characteristic of acute renal failure (ARF), the molecular mechanisms that modulate this cell death are unclear. Cell fate in acute renal failure hinges on a balance of survival and mortality factors in a changing environment. We further explored this issue by studying selected cell death-related proteins in(More)
Apoptosis is an active form of cell death that, in balance with mitosis, regulates cell number. Cell number abnormalities are a frequent feature of renal disease. We now review current concepts on the molecular regulation of apoptotic cell death, including the influence of survival and lethal factors from the extracellular microenvironment as well as the(More)
BACKGROUND The mesothelium contributes significantly to the functional, structural and homeostatic properties of the peritoneum. Bioincompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions contribute to mesothelial cell loss during chronic peritoneal dialysis. Cell death has been implicated in mesothelial cell loss, but the molecular mechanisms have not been adequately(More)
Cell number abnormalities are frequent in renal diseases, and range from the hypercellularity of postinfectious glomerulonephritis to the cell depletion of chronic renal atrophy. Recent research has shown that apoptosis and its regulatory mechanisms contribute to cell number regulation in the kidney. The role of apoptosis ranges from induction to repair and(More)