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We review recent results on the complete structure of the archaeal RNAP (RNA polymerase) enzyme of Sulfolobus shibatae. We compare the three crystal forms in which this RNAP packs (space groups P2₁2₁2₁, P2₁2₁2 and P2₁) and provide a preliminary biophysical characterization of the newly identified 13-subunit Rpo13. The availability of different crystal forms… (More)
Alphavirus budding is driven by interactions between nucleocapsids assembled in the cytoplasm and envelope proteins present at the plasma membrane. So far, the expression of capsid and envelope proteins in infected cells has been considered an absolute requirement for alphavirus budding and propagation. In the present study, we show that Semliki Forest… (More)
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mediates cell entry by attachment to an integrin receptor, generally αvβ6, via a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif in the exposed, antigenic, GH loop of capsid protein VP1. Infection can also occur in tissue culture adapted virus in the absence of integrin via acquired basic mutations interacting with… (More)
Introduction: Not only is there no comparable information on home care available from the newest EU member states, but information from the other 15 is old. Furthermore, as European countries have implemented health care reforms over the past decade, updating is needed.