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We have developed a micro-injection technique to deliver recombinant adenovirus and AAV to mouse fetuses at day 15 after conception. Several routes of delivery, including injections to the amniotic fluid, the front limb, the placenta, the liver, and the retro-orbital venus plexus, were tested using an E1-deleted recombinant adenovirus (Ad.CBlacZ) or a(More)
BACKGROUND Transcription of HIV-1 genes is activated by HIV-1 Tat protein, which induces phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) by CDK9/cyclin T1. Earlier we showed that CDK2/cyclin E phosphorylates HIV-1 Tat in vitro. We also showed that CDK2 induces HIV-1 transcription in vitro and that inhibition of CDK2 expression by RNA(More)
Transcription by RNA polymerase-II (RNAPII) is controlled by multisite phosphorylation of the heptapeptide repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit. Phosphorylation of CTD is mediated by the cyclin-dependent protein kinases Cdk7 and Cdk9, whereas protein serine/threonine phosphatase FCP1 dephosphorylates CTD. We have recently reported(More)
Citrullinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (AS). It is characterized by elevated levels of blood citrulline and ammonia, which often results in hyperammonemic coma and early neonatal death in affected children. We have explored the use of adenoviral vectors as a treatment modality in a murine(More)
Previous studies using different techniques have shown that adenoviral-mediated gene transfer to different tissues, including the kidney, is more efficient in neonatal mice. In this study, we report a simple technique that allows an efficient and long term expression of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) in the heart of newborn mice. Newborn and adult C57BL6/J(More)
Transcription of eukaryotic genes is regulated by phosphorylation of serine residues of heptapeptide repeats of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). We previously reported that protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) dephosphorylates RNAPII CTD in vitro and inhibition of nuclear PP1-blocked viral transcription. In this article, we analyzed(More)
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor that is accumulated in human dysplastic and cystic renal diseases. Previous studies have shown that bFGF can modulate the growth of developing renal tubules; however, its role in the pathogenesis of renal cyst formation is not clearly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that(More)
CDK9/cyclin T1, a key enzyme in HIV-1 transcription, is negatively regulated by 7SK RNA and the HEXIM1 protein. Dephosphorylation of CDK9 on Thr(186) by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in stress-induced cells or by protein phosphatase M1A in normally growing cells activates CDK9. Our previous studies showed that HIV-1 Tat protein binds to PP1 through the Tat(More)
The emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains presents a challenge for the design of new drugs. Targeting host cell factors involved in the regulation of HIV-1 replication might be one way to overcome the resistance of HIV-1 to anti-viral agents. Our recent studies identified protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) as an important regulator of HIV-1 transcription.(More)
Recombinant adenoviruses have great potential as gene delivery systems because of their ability to infect a wide range of target cells. However, systemic delivery of viral vectors to tissues other than liver and spleen has been inefficient because of the rapid clearance of the circulating virus by the liver. In the present study we tested the hypothesis(More)