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Root hairs are single cells that develop by tip growth and are specialized in the absorption of nutrients. Their cell walls are composed of polysaccharides and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that include extensins (EXTs) and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of HRGPs that is catalyzed(More)
The antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 of kappa/l-, partially cyclized mu/v-, and lambda-carrageenans isolated from the red seaweed Gigartina skottsbergii and their cyclized derivatives was analyzed. lambda-Carrageenans and the partially cyclized mu/v-carrageenan were the most potent inhibitors of herpes viruses (including(More)
The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight(More)
The water extracts from red seaweeds Laurencia obtusa and Laurencia filiformis comprise complex sulfated agarans. Those from L. obtusa have 3-linked β-d-galactose units in part sulfated on 2-position or methylated on 6-position, while the 4-linked units are mostly 3,6-anhydro-α-l-galactose and α-l-galactose 6-sulfate, some of the latter units are(More)
The galactans extracted with hot water from Kappaphycus alvarezii, after previous extraction at room temperature, are mainly composed of kappa-carrageenans (approximately 74%) and micro-carrageenans (approximately 3%). However, a significant percentage of these galactans (at least 14%) is composed of sulfated agarans and, possibly, agaran-type sulfated(More)
The lambda-carrageenan 1T1, the kappa/iota-carrageenan 1C1 and the mu/nu-type 1C3, isolated from the red seaweed Gigartina skottsbergii, proved to be potent and selective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. The antiviral IC50 values determined by virus yield inhibition assay in different cell lines ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 microg/ml, and(More)
A novel series of DL-galactan hybrids extracted from the red seaweed Gymnogongrus torulosus, was evaluated for its in vitro antiviral properties against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and dengue virus 2 (DEN-2). These compounds were very active against both viruses with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) values in the range 0.6-16 microg/ml for HSV-2(More)
A comprehensive analysis of the carbohydrate-containing macromolecules from the coencocytic green seaweed Codium fragile and their arrangement in the cell wall was carried out. Cell walls in this seaweed are highly complex structures composed of 31% (w/w) of linear (1-->4)-beta-D-mannans, 9% (w/w) of pyruvylated arabinogalactan sulfates (pAGS), and low(More)