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We have previously demonstrated that human peripheral blood low density mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 develop into dendritic cells (DCs) that are extremely efficient in presenting soluble antigens to T ceils. To identify the mechanisms responsible for efficient antigen capture,(More)
T lymphocytes can recognize and be activated by a very small number of complexes of peptide with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules displayed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The interaction between the T-cell receptor (TCR) and its ligand has low affinity and high off-rate. Both findings suggest that an extremely small(More)
We investigated the possibility that T helper cells might enhance the stimulatory function of dendritic cells (DCs). We found that ligation of CD40 by CD40L triggers the production of extremely high levels of bioactive IL-12. Other stimuli such as microbial agents, TNF-alpha or LPS are much less effective or not at all. In addition, CD40L is the most potent(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are classically viewed as lymphocytes that provide innate surveillance against virally infected cells and tumour cells through the release of cytolytic mediators and interferon (IFN)-gamma. In humans, blood CD56(dim) NK cells specialize in the lysis of cell targets. In the lymph nodes, CD56(bright) NK cells secrete IFN-gamma(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) of the ILC22 type protect the intestinal mucosa from infection by secreting interleukin 22 (IL-22). ILC22 cells include NKp46(+) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi)-like subsets that express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Here we found that Ahr(-/-) mice had a considerable deficit in ILC22 cells that resulted in less(More)
Type I IFN-producing cells (IPC) are sentinels of viral infections. Identification and functional characterization of these cells have been difficult because of their small numbers in blood and tissues and their complex cell surface phenotype. To overcome this problem in mice, mAbs recognizing IPC-specific cell surface molecules have been generated. In this(More)
Dendritic cells have the remarkable property of presenting any incoming antigen. To do so they must not only capture antigens with high efficiency and broad specificity, but must also maximize their capacity to load class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with antigenic peptides in order to present a large array of epitopes from(More)
Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis is negatively regulated by killer cell inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this study, we characterize a novel inhibitory MHC class I receptor of the immunoglobulin-superfamily, expressed not only by subsets of NK and T cells, but also by B cells, monocytes,(More)
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial surface receptor that triggers intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Recent genome-wide association studies have shown that a rare R47H mutation of TREM2 correlates with a substantial increase in the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address the basis for this(More)
The initiation of an immune response is critically dependent on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). This process is triggered by surface receptors specific for inflammatory cytokines or for conserved patterns characteristic of infectious agents. Here we show that human DCs are activated by influenza virus infection and by double-stranded (ds)RNA. This(More)