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Natural killer (NK) cells are classically viewed as lymphocytes that provide innate surveillance against virally infected cells and tumour cells through the release of cytolytic mediators and interferon (IFN)-gamma. In humans, blood CD56(dim) NK cells specialize in the lysis of cell targets. In the lymph nodes, CD56(bright) NK cells secrete IFN-gamma(More)
We have previously demonstrated that human peripheral blood low density mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 develop into dendritic cells (DCs) that are extremely efficient in presenting soluble antigens to T cells. To identify the mechanisms responsible for efficient antigen capture,(More)
The innate immune system recognizes viral dsRNA through two distinct pathways; the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway detects dsRNA phagocytosed in endosomes; the helicases retinoic acid-induced protein I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (mda-5) detect cytoplasmic dsRNA generated during viral replication. Both RIG-I and mda-5 can bind(More)
We investigated the possibility that T helper cells might enhance the stimulatory function of dendritic cells (DCs). We found that ligation of CD40 by CD40L triggers the production of extremely high levels of bioactive IL-12. Other stimuli such as microbial agents, TNF-alpha or LPS are much less effective or not at all. In addition, CD40L is the most potent(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) of the ILC22 type protect the intestinal mucosa from infection by secreting interleukin 22 (IL-22). ILC22 cells include NKp46(+) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi)-like subsets that express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Here we found that Ahr(-/-) mice had a considerable deficit in ILC22 cells that resulted in less(More)
Mucosal innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets promote immune responses to pathogens by producing distinct signature cytokines in response to changes in the cytokine microenvironment. We previously identified human ILC3 distinguished by interleukin-22 (IL-22) secretion. Here we characterized a human ILC1 subset that produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to(More)
We have identified two cell subsets in human blood based on the lack of lineage markers (lin-) and the differential expression of immunoglobulin-like transcript receptor 1 (ILT1) and ILT3. One subset (lin-/ILT3+/ILT1+) is related to myeloid dendritic cells. The other subset (lin-/ILT3+/ILT1+) corresponds to 'plasmacytoid monocytes'. These cells are found in(More)
Gene targeting of the adaptor molecule DAP12 in mice caused abnormal distribution and impaired antigen presentation capacity of dendritic cells (DCs). However, the DAP12-associated receptors expressed on DCs and their functions have not been identified yet. Here we show that the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2) is a cell surface(More)
Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis is negatively regulated by killer cell inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this study, we characterize a novel inhibitory MHC class I receptor of the immunoglobulin-superfamily, expressed not only by subsets of NK and T cells, but also by B cells, monocytes,(More)
T lymphocytes can recognize and be activated by a very small number of complexes of peptide with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules displayed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The interaction between the T-cell receptor (TCR) and its ligand has low affinity and high off-rate. Both findings suggest that an extremely small(More)