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The study is the first to analyze genetic and environmental factors that affect brain fiber architecture and its genetic linkage with cognitive function. We assessed white matter integrity voxelwise using diffusion tensor imaging at high magnetic field (4 Tesla), in 92 identical and fraternal twins. White matter integrity, quantified using fractional(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in learning and memory, but its effects on the fiber architecture of the living brain are unknown. We genotyped 455 healthy adult twins and their non-twin siblings (188 males/267 females; age: 23.7±2.1 years, mean±SD) and scanned them with high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to(More)
We apply an information-theoretic cost metric, the symmetrized Kullback-Leibler (sKL) divergence, or J-divergence, to fluid registration of diffusion tensor images. The difference between diffusion tensors is quantified based on the sKL-divergence of their associated probability density functions (PDFs). Three-dimensional DTI data from 34 subjects were(More)
There is a strong genetic risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), but so far few gene variants have been identified that reliably contribute to that risk. A newly confirmed genetic risk allele C of the clusterin (CLU) gene variant rs11136000 is carried by ∼88% of Caucasians. The C allele confers a 1.16 greater odds of developing late-onset AD than the(More)
Brain asymmetry, or the structural and functional specialization of each brain hemisphere, has fascinated neuroscientists for over a century. Even so, genetic and environmental factors that influence brain asymmetry are largely unknown. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) now allows asymmetry to be studied at a microscopic scale by examining differences in fiber(More)
Despite substantial progress in measuring the anatomical and functional variability of the human brain, little is known about the genetic and environmental causes of these variations. Here we developed an automated system to visualize genetic and environmental effects on brain structure in large brain MRI databases. We applied our multi-template(More)
We used tensor-derived measures to map the extent of genetic effects on brain fiber microstructure, in 23 monozygotic and 23 dizygotic twin pairs. All 92 DTI volumes were fluidly registered to a geometrically-centered template via a high-dimensional mapping of co-registered structural-MRI. After tensor reorientation , we computed three scalar DTI measures:(More)
Genetic and environmental factors influence brain structure and function profoundly. The search for heritable anatomical features and their influencing genes would be accelerated with detailed 3D maps showing the degree to which brain morphometry is genetically determined. As part of an MRI study that will scan 1150 twins, we applied Tensor-Based(More)
We extended genetic linkage analysis--an analysis widely used in quantitative genetics--to 3D images to analyze single gene effects on brain fiber architecture. We collected 4 Tesla diffusion tensor images (DTI) and genotype data from 258 healthy adult twins and their non-twin siblings. After high-dimensional fluid registration, at each voxel we estimated(More)
In structural brain MRI, group differences or changes in brain structures can be detected using Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM). This method consists of two steps: (1) a non-linear registration step, that aligns all of the images to a common template, and (2) a subsequent statistical analysis. The numerous registration methods that have recently been(More)