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Chromokinesins are microtubule plus end-directed motor proteins that bind to chromosome arms. In Xenopus egg cell-free extracts, Xkid and Xklp1 are essential for bipolar spindle formation but the functions of the human homologues, hKID (KIF22) and KIF4A, are poorly understood. By using RNAi-mediated protein knockdown in human cells, we find that only(More)
Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells, they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E)/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle(More)
Spindly recruits a fraction of cytoplasmic dynein to kinetochores for poleward movement of chromosomes and control of mitotic checkpoint signaling. Here we show that human Spindly is a cell cycle-regulated mitotic phosphoprotein that interacts with the Rod/ZW10/Zwilch (RZZ) complex. The kinetochore levels of Spindly are regulated by microtubule attachment(More)
Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis relies on a dynamic kinetochore (KT)-microtubule (MT) interface that switches from a labile to a stable condition in response to correct MT attachments. This transition is essential to satisfy the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) and couple MT-generated force with chromosome movements, but the underlying(More)
According to the “immortal” DNA strand hypothesis (Cairns Nature 255:197–200, 1975), stem cells would keep their template strands in order to prevent the accumulation of mutations, which could occur during DNA replication. Despite the growing number of studies that attempt to test this hypothesis, the conclusions remain highly controversial. In the base of(More)
Chromosome alignment in the middle of the bipolar spindle is a hallmark of metazoan cell divisions. When we offset the metaphase plate position by creating an asymmetric centriole distribution on each pole, we find that metaphase plates relocate to the middle of the spindle before anaphase. The spindle assembly checkpoint enables this centering mechanism by(More)
Chromosome bi-orientation occurs after conversion of initial lateral attachments between kinetochores and spindle microtubules into stable end-on attachments near the cell equator. After bi-orientation, chromosomes experience tension from spindle forces, which plays a key role in the stabilization of correct kinetochore-microtubule attachments. However, how(More)
Mitosis in high eukaryotes is typically initiated by nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB), consequently allowing the dynamic interaction between microtubules and condensed chromosomes. These spatially scattered chromosomes congress to the spindle equator to establish a metaphase plate before being equally distributed to two daughter cells during anaphase.(More)
Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near(More)
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