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Reapproximation of urethra or skin across an excised scar in the posterior urethra requires placement of sutures deep in the perineum, across the external sphincter, and into the prostatic urethra itself. In the most problematic cases, placement of such sutures via a suprapubic cystostomy tract eliminates most of the usual difficulties.
Exposure of the puboprostatic ligaments and underlying vascular structures is facilitated by removal of the Foley catheter and positioning of a Van Buren sound or Roth urethral suture guide in the prostatic urethra. Downward pressure on the sound puts traction on the ligaments and endopelvic fascia, more clearly demonstrating the ligaments and vessels.
Biofuel cells use catalysts (chemical, enzymatic or microbial) to convert chemical energy from organic substrates into electrical energy. This paper investigates energy harvesting from several low-power biofuel cells to power a load under several volts. As biofuel cells can share the same fuel source, an isolation is required to aggregate energy towards… (More)