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The arabidopsis thaliana HY4 gene encodes CRY1, a 75-kilodalton flavoprotein mediating blue light-dependent regulation of seedling development. CRY1 is demonstrated here to noncovalently bind stoichiometric amounts of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The redox properties of FAD bound by CRY1 include an unexpected stability of the neutral radical(More)
BACKGROUND Monomeric sarcosine oxidases (MSOXs) are among the simplest members of a recently recognized family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic enzymes that catalyze similar oxidative reactions with various secondary or tertiary amino acids and contain covalently bound flavins. Other members of this family include heterotetrameric sarcosine oxidase,(More)
The covalently bound FAD in native monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) is attached to the protein by a thioether bond between the 8alpha-methyl group of the flavin and Cys315. Large amounts of soluble apoenzyme are produced by controlled expression in a riboflavin-dependent Escherichia coli strain. A time-dependent increase in catalytic activity is observed(More)
Almond oxynitrilase (D-alpha-hydroxynitrile lyase, EC catalyzes the reversible condensation of HCN with aldehydes to form D-alpha-hydroxynitriles. Steady-state kinetic parameters for cleavage and synthesis of mandelonitrile and vanillin cyanohydrin were determined at pH 5.5 which is near the pH optimum of the enzyme. Benzaldehyde and vanillin act(More)
Native DNA photolyase, as isolated from Escherichia coli, contains a neutral flavin radical (FADH.) plus a pterin chromophore (5,10-methenyltetrahydropteroylpolyglutamate) and can be converted to its physiologically significant form by reduction of FADH. to fully reduced flavin (FADH2) with dithionite or by photoreduction. Either FADH2 or the pterin(More)
Corynebacterial sarcosine oxidase, a heterotetrameric (alpha beta gamma delta) enzyme containing covalent and noncovalent FAD, catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of sarcosine to yield glycine, H2O2, and 5,10-CH2-tetrahydrofolate (H4folate) in a reaction requiring H4folate and O2. The sarcosine oxidase operon contains at least five closely packed genes(More)
Sarcosine oxidase contains 1 mol of covalently bound plus 1 mol of noncovalently bound FAD per active site. The first phase of the anaerobic reduction of the enzyme with sarcosine converts oxidized enzyme to an equilibrium mixture of two-electron-reduced forms (EH2) and occurs at a rate (2700 min-1, pH 8.0) similar to that determined for the maximum rate of(More)
The absolute action spectrum of Escherichia coli DNA photolyase was determined in vitro. In vivo the photoreactivation cross-section (epsilon phi) is 2.4 X 10(4) M-1 cm-1 suggesting that the quantum yield (phi) is about 1.0 if one assumes that the enzyme has the same spectral properties (e.g. epsilon 384 = 1.8 X 10(4) M-1 cm-1) in vivo as those of the(More)
Electron spin polarization is a phenomenon characterized by anomalous line intensities (emission or enhanced absorption) in the EPR spectrum. It is highly diagnostic of radical pairs, such as those formed in photoinduced electron transfer reactions. Electron spin polarization behavior (E/A pattern) is observed in light-modulated EPR spectra obtained at 4 K(More)