Marilyn N. Martinez

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Several attempts have been made to describe the relation that exists between tobacco smoke and emphysema, through different experimental models of the active smoker. Despite the negative effects that involuntarily inhaled tobacco smoke can have on the lung, no experimental model of the passive smoker has been proposed. In this study, an experimental model(More)
The adrenergic system plays an important role in psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Antagonism of the adrenergic receptor subtypes alpha1A and alpha2A has been found to have an antipsychotic effect. Genetic mutations in these receptors could be related to the alterations in the adrenergic system observed in psychiatric patients and(More)
The fluoroquinolones are a class of compounds that comprise a large and expanding group of synthetic antimicrobial agents. Structurally, all fluoroquinolones contain a fluorine molecule at the 6-position of the basic quinolone nucleus. Despite the basic similarity in the core structure of these molecules, their physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic(More)
In comparing product bioavailability across animal species, it is not unusual to observe marked interspecies differences. For many compounds, these differences reflect presystemic drug metabolism. However, a host of other variables must also be considered such as in vivo drug solubility, gastric transit time, intestinal permeability, diet, and(More)
To date, the majority of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) discussions have focused on PK/PD relationships evaluated at steady-state drug concentrations. However, a concern with reliance upon steady-state drug concentrations is that it ignores events occurring while the pathogen is exposed to intermittent suboptimal systemic drug concentrations prior(More)
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily constitutes a collection of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of a wide array of endo- and xenobiotic compounds. Much of the knowledge on substrate specificity and genetic identification of the various CYP isoforms is derived from research in rodents and humans and only limited information has been captured in the(More)
The complexity of multiple species approvals continues throughout the life of a product as post-approval manufacturing changes, as well as all generic versions of approved products, are evaluated for each of the approved target animal species. In comparing product bioavailability across animal species, it is not unusual to observe marked interspecies(More)
This chapter provides an overview of our current understanding of the mechanisms associated with the development of antimicrobial drug resistance, international differences in definitions of resistance, ongoing efforts to track shifts in drug susceptibility, and factors that can influence the selection of therapeutic intervention. The latter presents a(More)