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Experiments were undertaken to investigate the factors which influence the transmission dynamics of Gyrodactylus bullatarudis within populations of laboratory guppies. The parasites possess a number of biological attributes which are almost unique amongst helminth parasites of vertebrates. These include the ability to reproduce viviparously and directly on(More)
Studies of phenotypic variation in nature often consider only a single potential selective agent. In such cases, it remains an open question as to whether variation attributed to that single measured agent might be influenced by some other unmeasured agent. Previous research has shown that phenotypic variation in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)(More)
BACKGROUND The soil-transmitted helminths (STH) Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura are gastrointestinal parasites causing many disabilities to humans, particularly children. The benzimidazole (BZ) drugs, albendazole (ALB) and mebendazole (MBZ), are commonly used for mass treatment for STH. Unfortunately, there is concern that increased use of(More)
A reduction in the strength of selection is expected to cause the evolution of reduced trait expression. Elimination of a parasite should thus cause the evolution of reduced resistance to that parasite. To test this prediction in nature, we studied the fourth- and eighth-generation descendants of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) introduced into four natural(More)
Protein malnutrition may increase susceptibility to gastrointestinal parasitic infections, possibly as a result of impaired intestinal and/or systemic T helper 2 (Th2) effector responses induced by down-regulation of Th2 cytokines and/or up-regulation of Th1 cytokines. To test this hypothesis, female BALB/c mice (n = 18/diet) were fed a control (24%),(More)
The importance of host heterogeneity in generating aggregation was investigated using Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Nematoda) in laboratory mice. Parameters of infection were compared between inbred and outbred mice, between primary and challenge infection protocols, and between gavage and natural exposure protocols, to investigate the relative effects of(More)
Changes in the variance to mean ratio and the parameter k of the negative binomial distribution were used to study temporal changes in the degree of aggregation of the monogenean parasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli in free-running laboratory populations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The parasite undergoes recurrent epidemic cycles in the host population(More)
Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a(More)
The effects of dietary protein and zinc restrictions on Heligmosomoides polygyrus were compared following primary and challenge infection in female BALB/c mice fed either control (24%), marginal (7%) or low (3%) protein combined with either high or low zinc (60 or 3 mg Zn/kg diet). Dietary protein restriction (3%) resulted in significantly lower body weight(More)
Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates(More)