Marilyn E. Carroll

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Background: Relative reinforcing efficacy has been assumed to be a homogeneous phenomenon referring to the behavior-strengthening or behavior-maintaining effects of a drug reinforcer. However, a variety of studies suggest that relative reinforcing efficacy may be heterogeneous. Objectives: The purpose of this theoretical proposal is to examine the(More)
Previous research in humans suggests a relationship between drug abuse and impulsivity as shown by selection of a smaller immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. However, it is not clear whether impulsivity precedes drug abuse or drug abuse influences impulsivity. The hypothesis of the present experiment was that rats selected for choosing smaller,(More)
This experiment examines the effect of access to a running-wheel on intravenous cocaine self-administration in male and female rats. Rats maintained at 85% of their free-feeding body weight were first exposed to the running-wheel alone during the 6-h sessions until behavior stabilized for 14 days. Intravenous cannulae were then implanted, and the rats were(More)
Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has recently been recognized as a factor contributing to enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present review, we focus on two facets of impulsivity (and tasks that measure them): (1) impulsive choice (delay discounting task) and (2) inhibitory failure (go/no-go, stop signal reaction time, and five-choice(More)
  Rationale: Recent studies suggest that the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, may be a useful pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse. Objectives: To investigate further the effects of baclofen on maintenance and reinstatement of cocaine-reinforced behavior in rats. Methods: Two groups of rats were trained to self-administer IV cocaine (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg per(More)
  Rationale: Despite numerous reports that male and female animals differ in behavioral responses to drugs, few studies have investigated sex differences in drug-reinforced behavior. Objectives: Acquisition of IV cocaine and heroin self-administration was compared in 20 female and 22 male Wistar rats. Methods: An autoshaping procedure was used to train rats(More)
Six monkeys self-administered orally delivered phencyclidine ("angel dust") and saccharin under concurrent fixed-ratio 16 schedules during daily three-hour sessions. Liquid deliveries were contingent upon lip-contact responses on solenoid-operated drinking spouts. Three saccharin concentrations (0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3%, wt/vol) were tested in a nonsystematic(More)
The effect of dose on the acquisition of IV amphetamine and cocaine self-administration was examined. Three unit doses of amphetamine (0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) and three unit doses of cocaine (0.05, 0.2 and 0.8 mg/kg) were tested in separate groups of ten (amphetamine) or 13 (cocaine) rats. Autoshaping methods were used to train rats to press a lever that(More)
Rationale: Previous research with both humans and animals suggests that there are sex differences in cocaine self-administration; in rodents, ovarian hormones may underlie these differences. Objectives: A two-lever drug self-administration procedure was used to compare regulation of intravenously self-administered cocaine in male and female rats and among(More)
Regulation of drug intake refers to the maintenance of relatively constant levels of drug over a specified time period. An understanding of regulation of drug intake may be critical in determining how drugs function as reinforcers and how their reinforcing effects may be modified. However, little is known about regulation of drug intake, and the mechanisms(More)