Marilyn Carroll

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Background: Relative reinforcing efficacy has been assumed to be a homogeneous phenomenon referring to the behavior-strengthening or behavior-maintaining effects of a drug reinforcer. However, a variety of studies suggest that relative reinforcing efficacy may be heterogeneous. Objectives: The purpose of this theoretical proposal is to examine the(More)
Previous research in humans suggests a relationship between drug abuse and impulsivity as shown by selection of a smaller immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. However, it is not clear whether impulsivity precedes drug abuse or drug abuse influences impulsivity. The hypothesis of the present experiment was that rats selected for choosing smaller,(More)
This experiment examines the effect of access to a running-wheel on intravenous cocaine self-administration in male and female rats. Rats maintained at 85% of their free-feeding body weight were first exposed to the running-wheel alone during the 6-h sessions until behavior stabilized for 14 days. Intravenous cannulae were then implanted, and the rats were(More)
  Rationale: Despite numerous reports that male and female animals differ in behavioral responses to drugs, few studies have investigated sex differences in drug-reinforced behavior. Objectives: Acquisition of IV cocaine and heroin self-administration was compared in 20 female and 22 male Wistar rats. Methods: An autoshaping procedure was used to train rats(More)
Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has recently been recognized as a factor contributing to enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present review, we focus on two facets of impulsivity (and tasks that measure them): (1) impulsive choice (delay discounting task) and (2) inhibitory failure (go/no-go, stop signal reaction time, and five-choice(More)
The recent focus on drug abuse in women has brought attention to numerous differences between women and men. In this review, we discuss both preclinical and clinical findings of sex differences in drug abuse as well as mechanisms that may underlie these differences. Recent evidence suggests that the progression to dependence and abuse may differ between(More)
Previous work from this laboratory has revealed that female rats acquired cocaine self-administration at a faster rate than male rats and that a greater percentage of females acquired self-administration [Psychopharmacology 144 (1999) 77.]. It has been suggested that sex differences in stimulant self-administration may be related to ovarian hormones,(More)
  Rationale: Recent studies suggest that the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, may be a useful pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse. Objectives: To investigate further the effects of baclofen on maintenance and reinstatement of cocaine-reinforced behavior in rats. Methods: Two groups of rats were trained to self-administer IV cocaine (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg per(More)
We examined the influence of chronic cocaine exposure, in an unlimited access self-administration paradigm, on density of the dopamine transporter (3H-WIN 35,428 and 3H-GBR 12,935 binding) and concentration of monoamine (dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and metabolites) neurotransmitters in rat brain. In normal rodent striatum 3H-WIN 35,428 and 3H-GBR(More)
Previous work indicates that female rats initiate cocaine use sooner than male rats and reach significantly higher break points (BPs) for a single injection of cocaine under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule compared to male rats. The present study extends previous work examining sex differences to the acquisition of methamphetamine (METH) (0.02 mg/kg) and(More)