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BACKGROUND Although cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, its long-term cognitive effects remain inadequately studied. METHODS We recruited individuals aged 30 to 55 years in 3 groups: (1) 63 current heavy users who had smoked cannabis at least 5000 times in their lives and who were smoking daily at study entry; (2) 45 former(More)
Increases in urine drug concentration that result from changes in urinary output may be mistakenly interpreted as new drug use rather than carryover from previous drug exposure. Normalization of drug excretion to urine creatinine concentration reduces the variability of drug measurement attributable to urine dilution. A specimen ratio of 1.5 or greater(More)
BACKGROUND SR141716, a recently developed CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, blocks acute effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other CB1 cannabinoid agonists in vitro and in animals. These findings suggest that CB1 receptors mediate many of the effects of marijuana, but this has not been evaluated in humans. METHODS Sixty-three healthy men(More)
Nicotine-induced attentional enhancement is of potential therapeutic value. To investigate the precise attentional function(s) affected and their neuronal mechanisms, the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used an attention task in which subjects responded to stimuli of high (INT(high)) or low intensity presented randomly in one of(More)
Clandestine laboratories constantly produce new synthetic cannabinoids to circumvent legislative scheduling efforts, challenging and complicating toxicological analysis. Sundstrom et al. (Anal Bioanal Chem 405(26):8463-8474, [9]) and Kronstrand et al. (Anal Bioanal Chem 406(15):3599-3609, [10]) published nontargeted liquid chromatography, high-resolution,(More)
Three experienced marijuana smokers participated in four 2-day experimental sessions in which they smoked either 0, 1, or 2 marijuana cigarettes containing 2.57% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at two different times on the first day. A battery of physiological, subjective, and performance measures was repeated throughout day 1 to assess acute effects(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals who initiate cannabis use at an early age, when the brain is still developing, might be more vulnerable to lasting neuropsychological deficits than individuals who begin use later in life. METHODS We analyzed neuropsychological test results from 122 long-term heavy cannabis users and 87 comparison subjects with minimal cannabis(More)
Increasing interest in the biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of cannabinoids and in the development of cannabinoid medications necessitates an understanding of cannabinoid pharmacokinetics and disposition into biological fluids and tissues. A drug's pharmacokinetics determines the onset, magnitude, and duration of its pharmacodynamic effects.(More)
delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of marijuana, is rapidly transferred from lungs to blood during smoking. Oxidative metabolism of THC yields the active metabolite, 11-hydroxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and the inactive metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH). Characterization(More)
Drug use by pregnant women has been extensively associated with adverse mental, physical, and psychological outcomes in their exposed children. This manuscript reviews bioanalytical methods for in utero drug exposure monitoring for common drugs of abuse in urine, hair, oral fluid, blood, sweat, meconium, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord tissue, nails, and(More)