Marilla Lucero

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BACKGROUND Although radiological pneumonia is used as an outcome measure in epidemiological studies, there is considerable variability in the interpretation of chest radiographs. A standardized method for identifying radiological pneumonia would facilitate comparison of the results of vaccine trials and epidemiological studies of pneumonia. METHODS A WHO(More)
BACKGROUND Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and(More)
BACKGROUND The annual number of hospital admissions and in-hospital deaths due to severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children worldwide is unknown. We aimed to estimate the incidence of admissions and deaths for such infections in children younger than 5 years in 2010. METHODS We estimated the incidence of admissions for severe and(More)
BACKGROUND The global burden of disease attributable to seasonal influenza virus in children is unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from lower respiratory infections associated with influenza in children younger than 5 years. METHODS We estimated the incidence of influenza episodes, influenza-associated acute lower(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in low-income countries. The effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, and mortality needs to be evaluated. OBJECTIVES To update the 2004 review on the efficacy of PCVs(More)
BACKGROUND Monitoring progress with disease and injury reduction in many populations will require widespread use of verbal autopsy (VA). Multiple methods have been developed for assigning cause of death from a VA but their application is restricted by uncertainty about their reliability. METHODS We investigated the validity of five automated VA methods(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumococcus is a leading cause of childhood pneumonia worldwide. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia in the United States and Africa. No information is available from Asia on the impact of PCV on childhood pneumonia. METHODS We conducted a(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization's (WHO) case definition for childhood pneumonia, composed of simple clinical signs of cough, difficult breathing and fast breathing, is widely used in resource poor settings to guide management of acute respiratory infections. The definition is also commonly used as an entry criteria or endpoint in different(More)
The etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) was identified in 235 (43.8%) of 537 hospitalized children less than 5 years of age. Clinical evidence of measles was found in 258 (48.0%) patients, of whom 59 had a second viral infection. A viral agent was identified in an additional 121 patients, so that a total of 379 (70.6%) had viral(More)