Learn More
The pancreatic islet beta-cell autoantigen of relative molecular mass 64,000 (64K), which is a major target of autoantibodies associated with the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been identified as glutamic acid decarboxylase, the biosynthesizing enzyme of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid).(More)
53BP1 participates early in the DNA damage response and is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control. Moreover, the phenotype of mice and cells deficient in 53BP1 suggests a defect in DNA repair (Ward et al., 2003b). Therefore, we asked whether or not 53BP1 would be required for the efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks. Our data indicate that(More)
As a model for studying the generation of antibody diversity, a gene-targeted mouse was produced that is hemizygous for a rearranged V(D)J segment at the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain locus, the other allele being nonfunctional. The mouse also has no functional kappa light chain allele. The heavy chain, when paired with any lambda light chain, is specific(More)
Germinal centers are critical for affinity maturation of antibody (Ab) responses. This process allows the production of high-efficiency neutralizing Ab that protects against virus infection and bacterial exotoxins. In germinal centers, responding B cells selectively mutate the genes that encode their receptors for antigen. This process can change Ab(More)
The contribution that long-lived bone marrow (BM) plasma cells (PCs) provide to enduring humoral immunity has been underscored by a number of recent studies. However, little is known about the immediate precursors that give rise to long-lived PCs in the BM of immune individuals. We have identified subsets of antigen-experienced B cells within the immune BM(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for Ig class switch recombination, a process that introduces DNA double-strand breaks in B cells. We show in this study that AID associates with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) promoting cell survival, presumably by resolving DNA double-strand breaks. Wild-type cells(More)
T cell diversity was once thought to depend on the interaction of T cell precursors with thymic epithelial cells. Recent evidence suggests, however, that diversity might arise through the interaction of developing T cells with other cells, the identity of which is not known. In this study we show that T cell diversity is driven by B cells and Ig. The TCR V(More)
The quasimonoclonal (QM) mouse provides an intelligible model to analyze the B cell selection as the competition between two major 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl-specific B cell populations whose BCR are comprised of the knockin V(H)17.2.25 (V(H)T)-encoded H chain and the lambda1 or lambda2 L chain. In this study, we show the QM system is useful to examine(More)
The control of systemic infection by encapsulated microorganisms requires T-independent type II (TI-2) Ab responses to bacterial polysaccharides. To understand how such responses evolve, we explored the function of transmembrane activator calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), a member of the TNFR family, required for TI-2 Ab(More)