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The pancreatic islet beta-cell autoantigen of relative molecular mass 64,000 (64K), which is a major target of autoantibodies associated with the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been identified as glutamic acid decarboxylase, the biosynthesizing enzyme of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid).(More)
The 8th Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology was held in Edmonton, Canada, 15-21 July 2005. Major outcomes included the elimination of the non-specific term "chronic allograft nephropathy" (CAN) from the Banff classification for kidney allograft pathology, and the recognition of the entity of chronic antibody-mediated rejection. Participation of B cells(More)
53BP1 participates early in the DNA damage response and is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control. Moreover, the phenotype of mice and cells deficient in 53BP1 suggests a defect in DNA repair (Ward et al., 2003b). Therefore, we asked whether or not 53BP1 would be required for the efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks. Our data indicate that(More)
Germinal centers are critical for affinity maturation of antibody (Ab) responses. This process allows the production of high-efficiency neutralizing Ab that protects against virus infection and bacterial exotoxins. In germinal centers, responding B cells selectively mutate the genes that encode their receptors for antigen. This process can change Ab(More)
As a model for studying the generation of antibody diversity, a gene-targeted mouse was produced that is hemizygous for a rearranged V(D)J segment at the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain locus, the other allele being nonfunctional. The mouse also has no functional kappa light chain allele. The heavy chain, when paired with any lambda light chain, is specific(More)
Until recently, cells were thought to be integral and discrete components of tissues, and their state was determined by cell differentiation. However, under some conditions, stem cells or their progeny can fuse with cells of other types, mixing cytoplasmic and even genetic material of different (heterotypic) origins. The fusion of heterotypic cells could be(More)
Agonistic alpha CD40 Ab's have been shown to be potent immune adjuvants for both cell- and humoral-mediated immunity. While enhancing short-lived humoral immunity, the administration of a CD40 agonist during thymus-dependent immune responses ablates germinal center formation, prematurely terminates the humoral immune response, blocks the generation of B(More)
The primary repertoire of the quasimonoclonal mouse is monospecific. However, among peripheral B cells, there is a high frequency of variant cells with V(H) replacements, which are also hypermutated. We show in this work that these hyperselected cells expand in numbers as the animals increase in age, switch their isotypes, and with increasing age become the(More)
The gut microbiota is compartmentalized in the intestinal lumen and induces local immune responses, but it remains unknown whether the gut microbiota can induce systemic response and contribute to systemic immunity. We report that selective gut symbiotic gram-negative bacteria were able to disseminate systemically to induce immunoglobulin G (IgG) response,(More)