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53BP1 participates early in the DNA damage response and is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control. Moreover, the phenotype of mice and cells deficient in 53BP1 suggests a defect in DNA repair (Ward et al., 2003b). Therefore, we asked whether or not 53BP1 would be required for the efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks. Our data indicate that(More)
Germinal centers are critical for affinity maturation of antibody (Ab) responses. This process allows the production of high-efficiency neutralizing Ab that protects against virus infection and bacterial exotoxins. In germinal centers, responding B cells selectively mutate the genes that encode their receptors for antigen. This process can change Ab(More)
The contribution that long-lived bone marrow (BM) plasma cells (PCs) provide to enduring humoral immunity has been underscored by a number of recent studies. However, little is known about the immediate precursors that give rise to long-lived PCs in the BM of immune individuals. We have identified subsets of antigen-experienced B cells within the immune BM(More)
Variable (V) region gene replacement was recently implicated in B cell repertoire diversification, but the contribution of this mechanism to antibody responses is still unknown. To investigate the role of V gene replacements in the generation of antigen-specific antibodies, we analyzed antiviral immunoglobulin responses of "quasimonoclonal" (QM) mice. The B(More)
The ability to mount an immune defense against infectious microorganisms and their products, and against tumors is believed to be a direct function of lymphocyte diversity. Because the diversity of lymphocyte receptor genes is >1000-fold more diverse than the entire genome and varies between genetically identical individuals, measuring lymphocyte diversity(More)
We have generated a monoclonal B-cell mouse by introducing homozygous, nonfunctional RAG-2 alleles and a lambda1 light-chain transgene into the quasi-monoclonal (QM) mouse, which contains a "knocked-in" V(H)DJ(H) rearrangement. Thus, this mouse, which we call MonoB, is devoid of T cells and contains preformed heavy- and light-chain genes encoding(More)
IgM in the blood of normal individuals consists mainly of 'natural' polyreactive antibodies. Natural IgM is thought to provide an initial defense against infection and to promote the healing of wounded cells. Yet, as Panzer and colleagues show, these benefits can be eclipsed when the IgM binds to damaged cells of the glomerulus, activating complement. IgM(More)
Cell fusion occurs in development and in physiology and rarely in those settings is it associated with malignancy. However, deliberate fusion of cells and possibly untoward fusion of cells not suitably poised can eventuate in aneuploidy, DNA damage and malignant transformation. How often cell fusion may initiate malignancy is unknown. However, cell fusion(More)
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