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Origins of DNA replication are licensed through the assembly of a chromatin-bound prereplication complex. Multiple regulatory mechanisms block new prereplication complex assembly after the G(1)/S transition to prevent rereplication. The strict inhibition of licensing after the G(1)/S transition means that all origins used in S phase must have been licensed(More)
Cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, has been implicated in the induction of secondary tumors in cancer patients. This drug is presumed to be mutagenic because of error-prone translesion synthesis of cisplatin adducts in DNA. Oxaliplatin is effective in cisplatin-resistant tumors, but its mutagenicity in humans has not been reported. The(More)
The S checkpoint response to ultraviolet radiation (UVC) that inhibits replicon initiation is dependent on the ATR and Chk1 kinases. Downstream effectors of this response, however, are not well characterized. Data reported here eliminated Cdc25A degradation and inhibition of Cdk2-cyclin E as intrinsic components of the UVC-induced pathway of inhibition of(More)
A quantitative PCR method was used to map a functional origin of DNA replication in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene in normal human fibroblasts. This PCR method measures the abundance of specific sequences in short fragments of newly replicated DNA from logarithmically growing cells. Quantitative measurements rely on synthetic(More)
Inhibition of replicon initiation is a stereotypic DNA damage response mediated through S checkpoint mechanisms not yet fully understood. Studies were undertaken to elucidate the function of checkpoint proteins in the inhibition of replicon initiation following irradiation with 254 nm UV light (UVC) of diploid human fibroblasts immortalized by the ectopic(More)
UV-induced DNA damage stalls DNA replication forks and activates the intra-S checkpoint to inhibit replicon initiation. In response to stalled replication forks, ATR phosphorylates and activates the transducer kinase Chk1 through interactions with the mediator proteins TopBP1, Claspin, and Timeless (Tim). Murine Tim recently was shown to form a complex with(More)
Electron microscopy (EM) was used to visualize intermediates of in vitro replication of closed circular DNA plasmids. Cell-free extracts were prepared from human cells that are proficient (IDH4, HeLa) or deficient (CTag) in bypass replication of pyrimidine dimers. The DNA substrate was either undamaged or contained a single cis, syn thymine dimer. This(More)
Defects in DNA damage responses may underlie genetic instability and malignant progression in melanoma. Cultures of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) and melanoma lines were analyzed to determine whether global patterns of gene expression could predict the efficacy of DNA damage cell cycle checkpoints that arrest growth and suppress genetic instability. NHMs(More)
Topoisomerase IIalpha (topoIIalpha) is an essential mammalian enzyme that topologically modifies DNA and is required for chromosome segregation during mitosis. Previous research suggests that inhibition of topoII decatenatory activity triggers a G(2) checkpoint response, which delays mitotic entry because of insufficient decatenation of daughter chromatids.(More)
We previously characterized a functional origin of DNA replication at the transcriptional promoter of the human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene (Cohen et al. [2002] J. Cell. Biochem. 85:346-356). This origin was mapped using a quantitative PCR assay to evaluate the relative abundance of HPRT markers in short nascent DNA strands(More)