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The S checkpoint response to ultraviolet radiation (UVC) that inhibits replicon initiation is dependent on the ATR and Chk1 kinases. Downstream effectors of this response, however, are not well characterized. Data reported here eliminated Cdc25A degradation and inhibition of Cdk2-cyclin E as intrinsic components of the UVC-induced pathway of inhibition of(More)
UV-induced DNA damage stalls DNA replication forks and activates the intra-S checkpoint to inhibit replicon initiation. In response to stalled replication forks, ATR phosphorylates and activates the transducer kinase Chk1 through interactions with the mediator proteins TopBP1, Claspin, and Timeless (Tim). Murine Tim recently was shown to form a complex with(More)
Inhibition of replicon initiation is a stereotypic DNA damage response mediated through S checkpoint mechanisms not yet fully understood. Studies were undertaken to elucidate the function of checkpoint proteins in the inhibition of replicon initiation following irradiation with 254 nm UV light (UVC) of diploid human fibroblasts immortalized by the ectopic(More)
The decatenation G2 checkpoint is proposed to delay cellular progression from G2 into mitosis when intertwined daughter chromatids are insufficiently decatenated. Previous studies indicated that the ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint kinase, but not the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase, was required for decatenation G2 checkpoint function.(More)
At any moment during S phase, regions of genomic DNA are in various stages of replication (i.e., initiation, chain elongation, and termination). These stages may be differentially inhibited after treatment with various carcinogens that damage DNA such as UV. We used visualization of active replication units in combed DNA fibers, in combination with(More)
Origins of DNA replication are licensed through the assembly of a chromatin-bound prereplication complex. Multiple regulatory mechanisms block new prereplication complex assembly after the G(1)/S transition to prevent rereplication. The strict inhibition of licensing after the G(1)/S transition means that all origins used in S phase must have been licensed(More)
Cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, has been implicated in the induction of secondary tumors in cancer patients. This drug is presumed to be mutagenic because of error-prone translesion synthesis of cisplatin adducts in DNA. Oxaliplatin is effective in cisplatin-resistant tumors, but its mutagenicity in humans has not been reported. The(More)
A quantitative PCR method was used to map a functional origin of DNA replication in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene in normal human fibroblasts. This PCR method measures the abundance of specific sequences in short fragments of newly replicated DNA from logarithmically growing cells. Quantitative measurements rely on synthetic(More)
After treatment with ultraviolet radiation (UV), human fibroblasts that express the HPV type 16 E6 oncoprotein display defects in repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, hypersensitivity to inactivation of clonogenic survival and an inability to sustain DNA replication. To determine whether these effects are specific to depletion of p53 or inactivation of(More)