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The gene coding aspartate racemase (EC was cloned from the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus IAM10064 and expressed efficiently in Escherichia coli. The 2.1 kilobase pairs long full length clone had an open reading frame of 729 nucleotides coding for 243 amino acids. The calculated molecular weight of 27,945 agreed well with the(More)
The occurrence of free D-amino acids and aspartate racemases in several hyperthermophilic archaea was investigated. Aspartic acid in all the hyperthermophilic archaea was highly racemized. The ratio of D-aspartic acid to total aspartic acid was in the range of 43.0 to 49.1%. The crude extracts of the hyperthermophiles exhibited aspartate racemase activity(More)
It has been known that an archaebacterium Methanosarcina barkeri strain MS (DSM 800) has a V-type ATPase (Inatomi, K., et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 10954-10959). Here, we report cloning of a cluster of F0F1-ATPase genes from the same organism, the first ever found in archaebacteria. The cluster and encoded subunits exhibit several unusual features such(More)
Functional chaperone cooperation between Hsp70 (DnaK) and Hsp104 (ClpB) was demonstrated in vitro. In a eubacterium Thermus thermophilus, DnaK and DnaJ exist as a stable trigonal ring complex (TDnaK.J complex) and the dnaK gene cluster contains a clpB gene. When substrate proteins were heated at high temperature, none of the chaperones protected them from(More)
Aspartate racemase from Streptococcus thermophilus contains no pyridoxal 5'-phosphate or other cofactors such as FAD, NAD+, and metal ions. It was affected by neither carbonyl reagents such as hydroxylamine nor sodium borohydride but was strongly inhibited by iodoacetamide and other thiol reagents. Aspartate, cysteate, and cysteine sulfinate were the only(More)
The iron-containing nitrile hydratase (NHase) is a photoreactive enzyme that is inactivated in the dark because of persistent association with NO and activated by photo-dissociation of NO. The crystal structure at 1.7 A resolution and mass spectrometry revealed the structure of the non-heme iron catalytic center in the nitrosylated state. Two Cys residues(More)
The primary structures of all the subunits of thermophilic ATP synthase were determined, and its alpha, beta and gamma subunits could be over-expressed in Escherichia coli, because these subunits were stable and reconstitutable. DNA of 7500 base pairs in length was found to contain a cluster of nine genes for subunits of ATP synthase. The order of their(More)
Free D-amino acid content in some archaea was investigated and D-forms of several amino acids were found in them. In the acidothermophilic archaeon, Thermoplasma acidophilum, the proportion of D-aspartate (D-Asp) to total Asp was as high as 39.7%. Crude extracts of Thermoplasma acidophilum had Asp-specific racemase activity that was pyridoxal 5'-phosphate(More)
The distribution of aspartate racemase (EC in various kinds of bacteria demonstrated that the enzyme occurs in lactic acid bacteria, such as Streptococcus species and Lactobacillus species. The enzyme from Streptococcus thermophilus IAM10064 was more thermostable than that from Streptococcus lactis IAM1198 which contained the enzyme most(More)
Nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus sp. N-771 is an alphabeta heterodimer with a nonheme ferric iron in the catalytic center. In the catalytic center, alphaCys112 and alphaCys114 are modified to a cysteine sulfinic acid (Cys-SO2H) and a cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH), respectively. To understand the function and the biogenic mechanism of these modified(More)