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Microglia are resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause innate immune responses via the LPS receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and CD14, in a variety of neuroinflammatory disorders including bacterial infection, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor(More)
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a novel multifunctional IL-1 family cytokine. IL-33 signals via a heterodimer composed of IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). IL-33 has been shown to activate T helper 2 cells (Th2), mast cells and basophils to produce a variety of Th2 cytokines and mediate allergic-type immune(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key molecules in the innate immune system in the central nervous system. Although astrocytes are believed to play physiological roles in regulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission, activated astrocytes may also be toxic to neurons. Here, we show that the ligands for TLRs 2, 4, 5 and 6 induce neuronal cell death in(More)
Microglia are multifunctional immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), accumulation of glial cells, gliosis, occurs in the lesions. The role of accumulated microglia in the pathophysiology of AD is still controversial. When neuronal damage occurs, microglia exert diversified(More)
Microglia are intrinsic immune cells in the central nervous system and play key roles in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system disorders. Microglia have been shown to attack damaged neurons by secreting a variety of neurotoxic factors including inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species and glutamate. On the other hand, they can produce(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Despite a variety of anti-inflammatory or immunomodulation drugs including interferon-beta are effective to reduce relapse risk, most patients have progressive neurological deterioration due to axonal degeneration. Accumulation of(More)
BACKGROUND Glutamate released by activated microglia induces excitotoxic neuronal death, which likely contributes to non-cell autonomous neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Although both blockade of glutamate receptors and inhibition of microglial activation are the therapeutic(More)
The accumulation of activated microglia is a hallmark of various neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia may have both protective and toxic effects on neurons through the production of various soluble factors, such as chemokines. Indeed, various chemokines mediate the rapid and accurate migration of microglia to lesions. In the zebra fish, another well-known(More)
Phosphatidylserine receptor is a key molecule that mediates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is expressed on various macrophage lineage cells, including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). Targeted clearance of degenerated neurons by microglia is essential to(More)
Reelin has recently attracted attention because of its connection to several neuropsychiatric diseases. We previously reported the finding that prior transplantation of GABAergic neuron precursor cells into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of mice significantly prevented the induction of cognitive and sensory-motor gating deficits induced by(More)