Marika Toivanen

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The innervation of human lower respiratory tract was studied with special emphasis on airways with sodium-potassium glyoxylic acid (SPG) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) methods to demonstrate catecholamine-containing and acetylcholinesterase-containing nerve fibers. AChE-method revealed a rich network of cholinesterase positive nerves both inside the(More)
The clinical efficacy and adverse effects of budesonide administered as a nasal aerosol in addition to sinus washings and erythromycin therapy was assessed by comparison with placebo in a randomized, double-blind study of 40 patients with chronic or recurrent maxillary sinusitis. Most of the patients had been referred for operative treatment. Corticosteroid(More)
Both fetal and adult human corneas were subjected to a variety of histochemical techniques for the demonstration of catecholamines. The techniques included both sodium-potassium-glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence (SPG) and formaldehyde-induced fluorescence after freeze-drying (FIF) procedure. In fetal corneas the presence of adrenergic nerve fibers could(More)
The aim of our research is to develop a method for "requirements exploration"--gathering, structuring and describing requirements for information systems in previously weakly understood areas. In health care, information systems are usually developed for a single organization, or for information flow from one organization to another. In our case domain,(More)
Process and activity modeling are widely used in healthcare work and systems development projects. There are various approaches and abstractions available for process modeling. This study describes a four-level approach to activity and process modeling which has been used in modeling healthcare activities in relation to the specification of service-oriented(More)
Different approaches are available for the integration of existing health information systems (HIS) in integration projects. Within the PlugIT project in Finland, we have found it necessary to design and implement integration in a collaborative, multidisciplinary and open way. In this paper, we use some generic integration models and relate them to the(More)
During 1983-87, tympanostomy tubes were inserted in a total of 4952 ears of 2575 children remitted to the ENT Department of our hospital because of chronic or recurrent otitis media problems. The children were included in a prospective study and referred to one of three groups for comparison of findings. Group 1 included all 6- to 12-month-old infants(More)
Information systems in healthcare need to be designed and developed in a collaborative way. However, existing collaborative methodologies for the parallel development of healthcare work and information systems are vague and fragmented. Furthermore, they neither address people-centred healthcare nor limited-resource contexts. In this paper we introduce an(More)