Marika Mänd

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A collection of 101 isolates of Phytophthora infestans, obtained from seven sampling sites representing central, east and south-east Estonia during 2002 and 2003 were assessed for several phenotypic and genotypic markers. All 101 isolates were assessed for virulence and resistance to metalaxyl. Virulence to each of the 11 classic resistance genes was found(More)
Responses of temperature sensitive (cold) cells from the antenna of ground beetles (tribe Platynini) were compared in species with different ecological preferences and daily activity rhythms. Action potential rates were characterized at various temperatures (ranges 23-39 degrees C) and during rapid changes in it (Deltat=0.5-15 degrees C). The stationary(More)
Understanding the effects of local and landscape factors on bumblebees is relevant for the conservation of this group of pollinators. Bumblebees have been well-studied in agricultural landscapes of Western Europe, Asia and North America, but few studies have been developed on bumblebees in forest-dominated landscapes of Eastern Europe. We developed this(More)
Significant between-individual variation in resting metabolic rate (RMR) of animals is a widespread phenomenon that may have important implications for our understanding of variation in behavior and animal personality. By using wild caught mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, we examined the relationships among survival rate under predator tests, individual(More)
Harmful parasite infestation can cause energetically costly behavioural and immunological responses, with the potential to reduce host fitness and survival. It has been hypothesized that the energetic costs of infection cause resting metabolic rate (RMR) to increase. Furthermore, under terminal investment theory, individuals exposed to pathogens should(More)
Cycles of discontinuous gas exchange (DGCs) and abdominal ventilatory movements were studied in nurses of red wood ant, Formica polyctena, using an electrolytic respirometer and an infra-red (IR) gas analyser or flow-through respirometry. Both respirometry systems were combined with an IR actographic device based on IR-emitting and IR-sensor diodes. After(More)
Kaolin is an inert material with a broad range of applications, e.g. as an insecticide and as a filling substance in the formulation of biopesticides. Hence, bees that dispense biopesticides to the field in the context of entomovectoring are exposed to elevated risks because of side-effects of those products. Here, we investigated with use of bumble bee(More)
Oxygen convective uptakes in gas exchange cycles were directly recorded in early diapause pupae of Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) by means of O2 coulometric respirometry. This method was combined with flow-through CO2 respirometry, the two systems being switchable one to the other. During recording with both systems, measurements were also(More)
In sustainable pest management, orientation of insect pests can be manipulated by utilizing the relative attractiveness of different host plants. Plants attractive for oviposition but not offering a suitable resource for the development of larvae are called dead-end trap crops. In this study, the number of eggs and larvae and larval survival of Meligethes(More)
Terminal investment hypothesis is a longstanding theoretical idea that organisms should increase their reproductive effort as their prospects for survival and reproduction decline. However, numerous attempts to test the terminal investment in reproduction have yielded contradictory results. This study reports an experimental confirmation of the terminal(More)