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During the period from May 1983 to July 1985 we conducted an epidemiological study to determine potential vectors of malaria in 6 districts in the state of Pará in northern Brazil. The examination of random human blood smears, prepared at the time of mosquito capture, indicated overall human infection rates of 16.7% and 10.9% for Plasmodium falciparum and(More)
The localization of Plasmodium brasilianum antigens, common to merozoite micronemes and parasite-induced structures in the host erythrocyte, was determined by means of immunogold electron microscopy and monoclonal antibodies directed against blood stages of this parasite. All monoclonal antibodies reacted with micronemes. In addition, some reacted with(More)
We demonstrate for the first time the presence of a circumsporozoite (CS)-like protein in invasive blood stages of malaria parasites. Immunogold electron microscopy using antisporozoite monoclonal antibodies localized these antigens in the micronemes of merozoites. Western immunoblot and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of mature blood stage extracts of(More)
We have characterized the immune response of mice to multiple Ag peptide systems (MAP) containing the immunodominant B cell epitope (NANP)3 and one of three distinct Th epitopes, Th2R, Th3R, and CS.T3, of the C terminal region of the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum, a human malaria parasite. Mice of three different MHC haplotypes (H-2k,(More)
A panel of Brazilian and Indian sera was screened for reactivity with a variant strain of Plasmodium vivax recently isolated in Thailand. This strain has been shown to have a unique repeat region which differs from the previously described P. vivax CS proteins. A total of 21/343 human sera were found to react with a synthetic peptide representing the(More)
A seroepidemiological study of the prevalence of antibodies against the repeating epitopes of circumsporozoite (CS) proteins of human malaria parasites was conducted in 2 different areas in the state of Acre, Brazil in 1987 and 1990. In 1987 antibodies against the CS protein of the VK 247 variant Plasmodium vivax as well as antibodies against the CS(More)
A blood stage-induced P. brasilianum infection in a naive squirrel monkey induced antibodies which reacted with the circumsporozoite protein of the parasite. Titers increased with duration of infection and persisted for 3 months after cure. In an immunoblot, these antibodies detected two polypeptides with molecular weights identical to those of the(More)
The localization of Plasmodium brasilianum-derived antigens in short and long clefts within the cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes and in association with knobs of the host cell membrane was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies. Our results document that malaria-induced short and long clefts, previously distinguishable only(More)
A Turing machine has an important role in education in the field of computer science, as it is a milestone in courses related to automata theory, theory of computation and computer architecture. Its value is also recognized in the Computing Curricula proposed by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and IEEE Computer Society. In this paper we(More)