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Despite accumulating evidence for a reconsolidation process in animals, support in humans, especially for episodic memory, is limited. Using a within-subjects manipulation, we found that a single application of electroconvulsive therapy following memory reactivation in patients with unipolar depression disrupted reactivated, but not non-reactivated,(More)
BACKGROUND Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression are reliably associated with reductions in brain volume in markedly similar areas. To our knowledge, no volumetric studies have directly contrasted these conditions. We investigated which, if any, grey matter reductions would be uniquely associated with each disorder. We also investigated(More)
Periodically flipping the contrast of a moving pattern causes a reversal of the perceived direction of motion. This direction reversal, known as reverse-phi motion, has been generally explained with the notion that flipping contrasts actually shifted the balance of motion energy toward the opposite direction. In this sense, the reversal is trivial because(More)
Memory enhancement for emotional events is dependent on amygdala activation and noradrenergic modulation during learning. A potential role for noradrenaline (NE) during retrieval of emotional memory is less well understood. Here, we report that administration of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol at retrieval abolishes a declarative memory(More)
Sleep is strongly involved in memory consolidation, but its role remains unclear. 'Sleep replay', the active potentiation of relevant synaptic connections via reactivation of patterns of network activity that occurred during previous experience, has received considerable attention. Alternatively, sleep has been suggested to regulate synaptic weights(More)
Almost all studies on memory formation have implicitly put forward a rather static view on memory. However, memories are not stable but sensitive to changes over time. Here we argue that memory alterations arise from the inherent predictive function of memory. Within this framework, we draw an analogy between the lateral temporal-lateral prefrontal system(More)
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reliably associated with reduced brain volume relative to healthy controls, in areas similar to those found in depression. We investigated whether in a PTSD sample brain volumes in these areas were related to reporting specific symptoms of PTSD or to overall symptom severity. METHOD Structural MRI scans(More)
Reconsolidation postulates that reactivation of a memory trace renders it susceptible to disruption by treatments similar to those that impair initial memory consolidation. Despite evidence that implicit, or non-declarative, human memories can be disrupted at retrieval, a convincing demonstration of selective impairment in retrieval of target episodic(More)
A polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene is implicated in susceptibility to anxiety and depression and in enhanced emotion-induced activation in the amygdala. A role for 5-HTT polymorphism in the emotional modulation of human episodic memory has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate that whereas emotional memory for aversive(More)
It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be(More)