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Despite accumulating evidence for a reconsolidation process in animals, support in humans, especially for episodic memory, is limited. Using a within-subjects manipulation, we found that a single application of electroconvulsive therapy following memory reactivation in patients with unipolar depression disrupted reactivated, but not non-reactivated,(More)
Almost all studies on memory formation have implicitly put forward a rather static view on memory. However, memories are not stable but sensitive to changes over time. Here we argue that memory alterations arise from the inherent predictive function of memory. Within this framework, we draw an analogy between the lateral temporal-lateral prefrontal system(More)
Sleep is strongly involved in memory consolidation, but its role remains unclear. 'Sleep replay', the active potentiation of relevant synaptic connections via reactivation of patterns of network activity that occurred during previous experience, has received considerable attention. Alternatively, sleep has been suggested to regulate synaptic weights(More)
BACKGROUND Excessive anticipatory reactions to potential future adversity are observed across a range of anxiety disorders, but the neurogenetic mechanisms driving interindividual differences are largely unknown. We aimed to discover and validate a gene-brain-behavior pathway by linking presumed genetic risk for anxiety-related psychopathology, key neural(More)
Memory enhancement for emotional events is dependent on amygdala activation and noradrenergic modulation during learning. A potential role for noradrenaline (NE) during retrieval of emotional memory is less well understood. Here, we report that administration of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol at retrieval abolishes a declarative memory(More)
Mental schemas form associative knowledge structures that can promote the encoding and consolidation of new and related information. Schemas are facilitated by a distributed system that stores components separately, presumably in the form of inter-connected neocortical representations. During retrieval, these components need to be recombined into one(More)
Reconsolidation postulates that reactivation of a memory trace renders it susceptible to disruption by treatments similar to those that impair initial memory consolidation. Despite evidence that implicit, or non-declarative, human memories can be disrupted at retrieval, a convincing demonstration of selective impairment in retrieval of target episodic(More)
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is reliably associated with reduced brain volume relative to healthy controls, in areas similar to those found in depression. We investigated whether in a PTSD sample brain volumes in these areas were related to reporting specific symptoms of PTSD or to overall symptom severity. METHOD Structural MRI scans(More)
A polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene is implicated in susceptibility to anxiety and depression and in enhanced emotion-induced activation in the amygdala. A role for 5-HTT polymorphism in the emotional modulation of human episodic memory has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate that whereas emotional memory for aversive(More)
Maladaptive learned responses and memories contribute to psychiatric disorders that constitute a significant socio-economic burden. Primary treatment methods teach patients to inhibit maladaptive responses, but do not get rid of the memory itself, which explains why many patients experience a return of symptoms even after initially successful treatment.(More)