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p21 protein (p21) inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases is a critical downstream effector in the p53-specific pathway of growth control and can also be induced by p53-independent pathways in relation to terminal differentiation. We investigated p21 immunoreactivity in 261 breast carcinomas (141 node negative and 120 node positive) with long-term follow-up(More)
Two consecutive series of 107 invasive carcinomas and 108 carcinomas in situ of the breast were considered retrospectively. The main symptomatic, clinical and cytological features were retrieved from clinical records, whereas the features at mammography and/or ultrasonography were reclassified at a blinded review by an expert radiologist. The power of(More)
Telepathology is a field of telemedicine that enables the exchange of histologic and cytologic images for consultations among pathologists of two or more remote institutions, through a suitable communication channel. The Internet can connect several scientific and medical institutions because of the existence of a set of standard protocols that allow(More)
Bonzanini M., Gilioli E., Brancato B., Cristofori A., Bricolo D., Natale N., Valentini A., and Dalla Palma P. (2001)Cytopathology 12, 107-119. The cytopathology of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. A detailed analysis of fine needle aspiration cytology of 58 cases compared with 101 invasive ductal carcinomas. The existence of cytological findings that(More)
Bcl-2 and p53 gene products (Bcl-2, p53) are important regulators of apoptosis and cell proliferation, and their immunohistochemical expression may help to identify high-risk breast cancer patients. The authors evaluated p53 and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in 178 node-negative breast cancers (NNBC) with long-term follow-up (median, 60 months). Bcl-2 was seen in(More)
AIMS AND BACKGROUND Although they have been decreasing over time due to improved specificity of diagnostic assessment, benign biopsies of the breast are still common. Benign biopsies should be regarded as negative events, due to their economical and psychological cost and their possible negative impact on cosmesis and on further diagnostic evaluation. (More)
HMB-45 (melanocytic cell-specific monoclonal antibody) immunoreactivity was investigated in 10 cases of angiomyolipoma (AML) (1 with massive regional lymph node involvement) of the kidney and detected in all of them. No HMB-45 immunoreactivity was found in other tumors of the region which can occasionally be confused with AML, such as renal cell carcinoma,(More)
BACKGROUND Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is distinct from other breast cancers, because the tumor cells lack estrogen and progesterone receptors (hormone receptors) and also are negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). They comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors with various histologic features and clinical behaviors.(More)