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Previous research has shown that predictable information in speech is often reduced. The present study aims to find out more about reduction with regard to speech but mainly whether reduction also occurs in speech-accompanying gestures. To this end, a director-matcher task was set up in which speakers of Dutch took part. In this task the director had to(More)
Do people speak differently when they cannot use their hands? Previous studies have suggested that speech becomes less fluent and more monotonous when speakers cannot gesture, but the evidence for this claim remains inconclusive. The present study attempts to find support for this claim in a production experiment in which speakers had to give addressees(More)
Maternal serum alpha 1-antitrypsin concentrations were measured serially in pregnant women who were normotensive and those with mild, moderate, and severe hypertension of pregnancy from 27 weeks' gestation to term. alpha 1-antitrypsin concentrations increased with advancing gestation in all four groups. In addition, the hypertensive pregnancies showed(More)
Previous research has shown that repeated references are often reduced compared to initial references. The present study looks at the production of repeated references by signers of Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT). Participants had to describe figures to an addressee, who had to pick the correct figure from a large group of figures. Several figures(More)
Does language influence the production and perception of gestures? The metaphorical use of language in representing time is deeply interlinked with actions in space, such as gestures. In Chinese, speakers can talk and gesture about time as if it were horizontal, sagittal, or vertical. In English, speakers rarely employ the vertical plane. Two experiments(More)
Repeated references have been found to be reduced as compared to references that are not repeated, both in speech and in gesture. In the present study we wanted to see whether certain factors can inhibit this reduction in repeated references. In a production experiment, speakers were confronted with negative feedback after an initial description of an(More)
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