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BACKGROUND Pathogenic mutations in the X-linked Neuroligin 4 gene (NLGN4X) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or mental retardation (MR) are rare. However, nothing is known regarding a possible altered expression level of NLGN4X that would be caused by mutations in regulatory sequences. We investigated this issue by analyzing these regions in patients(More)
Ascoviruses (family Ascoviridae) are large, enveloped, double-stranded (ds)DNA viruses that attack lepidopteran larvae and pupae, and are unusual in that they are transmitted by parasitic wasps during oviposition. Previous comparisons of DNA polymerase sequences from vertebrate and invertebrate viruses suggested that ascoviruses are closely related to(More)
Mariner-like elements (MLE) are Class II transposable elements that are very widespread among eukaryotic genomes. One MLE belonging to the mauritiana subfamily, named Botmar1, has been identified in the genome of the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris. gDNA hybridization with the Botmar1 transposase ORF revealed that about 230 elements are present in each(More)
Ascoviruses (family Ascoviridae) are double-stranded DNA viruses with circular genomes that attack lepidopterans, where they produce large, enveloped virions, 150 by 400 nm, and cause a chronic, fatal disease with a cytopathology resembling that of apoptosis. After infection, host cell DNA is degraded, the nucleus fragments, and the cell then cleaves into(More)
BACKGROUND The ascovirus, DpAV4a (family Ascoviridae), is a symbiotic virus that markedly increases the fitness of its vector, the parasitic ichneumonid wasp, Diadromus puchellus, by increasing survival of wasp eggs and larvae in their lepidopteran host, Acrolepiopsis assectella. Previous phylogenetic studies have indicated that DpAV4a is related to the(More)
Mariner-like elements (MLE) belong to the Tc1/ mariner superfamily of class II transposons. We have analyzed the mariner related to the cecropia subfamily, and called mammal mar1, in four mammalian genomes, Bos taurus (Bovidae), Homo sapiens (Primata), Mus musculus (Rodentia), and Ovis aries (Ovidae). Three kinds of MLE sequences were found in all these(More)
Treatment of mice with the proximate neurotoxin MPTP depletes striatal dopamine levels. Depletion of striatal dopamine and metabolites in MPTP-treated mice is accompanied by depletion of glutathione (GSH) in the substantia nigra (SN). Striatal GSH and nigral amino acid levels were not significantly affected by MPTP. Results suggest that GSH depletion in SN(More)
In neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) of Macaca fascicularis the administration of parkinsongenic doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) caused morphological changes of the neuromelanic granules. Under light microscopy, the granules appeared more dispersed and larger. Electron microscopy revealed coalescence of granules in large(More)
Amino acid and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in substantia nigra (SN) as well as striatal monoamine levels were measured in acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCar) treated and control Swiss-Webster mice. ALCar, L carnitine, or saline were administered i.p. to mice for 5 days and mice were decapitated 24 hours following the last injection. Substantia nigra and striata(More)
Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are classII transposons with highly conserved sequence properties and are widespread in the genome of animal species living in continental environments. We describe here the first full-length MLE found in the genome of a marine crustacean species, the deep-sea hydrothermal crab Bythograea thermydron (Crustacea), named Bytmar1. A(More)