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We have developed ClueGO, an easy to use Cytoscape plug-in that strongly improves biological interpretation of large lists of genes. ClueGO integrates Gene Ontology (GO) terms as well as KEGG/BioCarta pathways and creates a functionally organized GO/pathway term network. It can analyze one or compare two lists of genes and comprehensively visualizes(More)
The role of the adaptive immune response in controlling the growth and recurrence of human tumors has been controversial. We characterized the tumor-infiltrating immune cells in large cohorts of human colorectal cancers by gene expression profiling and in situ immunohistochemical staining. Collectively, the immunological data (the type, density, and(More)
The tumor microenvironment includes a complex network of immune T-cell subpopulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed the balance between cytotoxic T cells and different subsets of helper T cells in human colorectal cancers and we correlated their impact on disease-free survival. A panel of immune related genes were analyzed in 125 frozen(More)
PURPOSE The prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer has sometimes proved uncertain; thus, the prognostic significance of immune criteria was compared with that of the tumor extension criteria using the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer-TNM (AJCC/UICC-TNM) staging system. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied the(More)
PURPOSE Many patients who present with early-stage colorectal cancer (International Union Against Cancer TNM stages I and II) are nevertheless at high risk of relapse. We hypothesized that intratumoral immune reaction could influence their prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS The intratumoral immune reaction was investigated in 29 tumors by large-scale(More)
The complex interactions between tumors and their microenvironment remain to be elucidated. Combining large-scale approaches, we examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of 28 different immune cell types (immunome) infiltrating tumors. We found that the immune infiltrate composition changed at each tumor stage and that particular cells had a major impact on(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Colorectal cancer is a complex disease involving immune defense mechanisms within the tumor. Herein, we used data integration and biomolecular network reconstruction to generate hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying immune responses in colorectal cancer that are relevant to tumor recurrence. METHODS Mechanistic hypotheses were(More)
A role for the immune system in controlling the progression of solid tumors has been established in several mouse models. However, the effect of immune responses and tumor escape on patient prognosis in the context of human cancer is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cellular and molecular parameters that could describe in situ immune responses in(More)
The tumor microenvironment is host to a complex network of cytokines that contribute to shaping the intratumoral immune reaction. Chromosomal gains and losses, coupled with expression analysis, of 59 cytokines and receptors and their functional networks were investigated in colorectal cancers. Changes in local expression for 13 cytokines were shown.(More)
Although distant metastases account for most of the deaths in cancer patients, fundamental questions regarding mechanisms that promote or inhibit metastasis remain unanswered. We show the impact of mutations, genomic instability, lymphatic and blood vascularization, and the immune contexture of the tumor microenvironment on synchronous metastases in large(More)