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The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is affected negatively by sleep deprivation (SD) and executive functioning is largely dependent on activity in the PFC. Earlier studies have focused on subsystems of executive functioning, and tests of executive functioning have shown both low reliability and low validity. In the present study, 11 healthy volunteers were sleep(More)
Little is known about the presence of dendritic cells in the human CNS. To investigate the occurrence of dendritic cells in the CSF, paired blood/CSF samples from patients with multiple sclerosis, acute optic neuritis, Lyme neuroborreliosis, other inflammatory neurological diseases and non-inflammatory neurological diseases were examined using flow(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous work has demonstrated a link between restricted sleep and risk indicators for cardiovascular and metabolic disease, such as levels of cortisol, lipids, and glucose. The present study sought to identify relations between polysomnographic measures of disturbed sleep (frequency of arousals from sleep, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency)(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the time and space patterns of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (MON) in Stockholm County, Sweden, and to explore the role of environmental factors in the etiology of MON and multiple sclerosis. DESIGN Population-based and prospective incidence survey. SETTING Census based on referrals from 1.68 million inhabitants of(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Burnout is a growing health problem in Western society. This study aimed to investigate sleep in subjects scoring high on burnout but still at work. The purpose was also to study the diurnal pattern of sleepiness, as well as ratings of work stress and mood in groups with different burnout scores. DESIGN Sleep was recorded in 2 groups(More)
Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copolymer 1; Copaxone) and interferon-beta (IFN-beta) modulate the course of multiple sclerosis (MS), but probably by different mechanisms. GA, a mixture of synthetic peptides, is believed to act as an altered peptide ligand with inhibitory effects on autoreactive T cells and promoting Th2 cells. It is unknown whether GA affects(More)
The activities of the metalloproteinase gelatinase B, and the presence of IL-6, an inducer of metalloproteinase inhibitors, were investigated in CSF samples of 190 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS; n = 55), optic neuritis (ON; n = 46), other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND; n = 27) or control patients (CON) with non-inflammatory neurological(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with high levels of circulating T lymphocytes that respond to the myelin antigens myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP) by producing various cytokines including interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) that makes MS worse and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), an endogenously produced immunosuppressant(More)
BACKGROUND Insomnia-type sleep disturbances are frequent among patients suffering from stress-related exhaustion disorder. However, clinical observations indicate that a subgroup suffer from sleep lengths frequently exceeding 9 hours, coupled with great daytime sleepiness. AIMS The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by patchy accumulations of inflammatory cells combined with demyelination. There are mononuclear cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with MS that produce interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in response to myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP). Here we describe autoantigen-induced(More)