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Although autosomal forms of nonsyndromic mental retardation account for the majority of cases of mental retardation, the genes that are involved remain largely unknown. We sequenced the autosomal gene SYNGAP1, which encodes a ras GTPase-activating protein that is critical for cognition and synapse function, in 94 patients with nonsyndromic mental(More)
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that profoundly affects cognitive, behavioral and emotional processes. The wide spectrum of symptoms and clinical variability in schizophrenia suggest a complex genetic etiology, which is consistent with the numerous loci thus far identified by linkage, copy number variation and association studies. Although(More)
Growing genetic evidence is converging in favor of common pathogenic mechanisms for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID or mental retardation) and schizophrenia (SCZ), three neurodevelopmental disorders affecting cognition and behavior. Copy number variations and deleterious mutations in synaptic organizing proteins including NRXN1(More)
Schizophrenia likely results from poorly understood genetic and environmental factors. We studied the gene encoding the synaptic protein SHANK3 in 285 controls and 185 schizophrenia patients with unaffected parents. Two de novo mutations (R1117X and R536W) were identified in two families, one being found in three affected brothers, suggesting germline(More)
The role of de novo mutations (DNMs) in common diseases remains largely unknown. Nonetheless, the rate of de novo deleterious mutations and the strength of selection against de novo mutations are critical to understanding the genetic architecture of a disease. Discovery of high-impact DNMs requires substantial high-resolution interrogation of partial or(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are two common neurodevelopmental syndromes that result from the combined effects of environmental and genetic factors. We set out to test the hypothesis that rare variants in many different genes, including de novo variants, could predispose to these conditions in a fraction of cases. In addition, for(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the genetics of nonsyndromic intellectual disability (NSID). Recently, we reported de novo truncating mutations in the SYNGAP1 gene of 3 of 94 NSID cases, suggesting that its disruption represents a common cause of autosomal dominant NSID. METHODS To further explore the involvement of SYNGAP1 in NSID, we sequenced its(More)
Lifetime substance abuse comorbidity is frequent in schizophrenic patients, but the clinical correlates remain unclear. We have explored the chronological relations between substance abuse and course of schizophrenia, and compared several clinical characteristics and personality dimensions in 50 schizophrenic patients with or without lifetime substance(More)
Markers of vulnerability have been identified in schizophrenia, and among them, neurological soft-signs (NSS) and minor physical anomalies (MPAs) also seem to occur in biological relatives. The similarities of these developmental markers within families may depend on either genetic or non-genetic factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND High-frequency bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD Using the crossover, randomized, and double-blind procedure adopted by the STOC study, 10 patients treated with high-frequency bilateral STN DBS underwent am 18-fluorodeoxyglucose(More)