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In an open label study, we analyzed the efficacy of botulinum toxin injection at the lower limbs of patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). Fifteen patients who showed disabling spasticity with no or poor effect of oral treatment were recruited consecutively. Botulinum toxin was injected (400 U; Botox) into the spastic muscles identified by(More)
Botulinum toxin injection reduces spasticity level. However, the effects on gait parameters and daily living activities remain controversial, and the prediction of results remains poorly evaluated. The aim of this open study was to investigate these effects, and the predictability of results. Forty-seven injections were given to 47 patients with stroke(More)
BACKGROUND French public health policies aimed at reducing smoking were reinforced in France between 1999 and 2004 to decrease tobacco consumption. The consequences of these policies are of particular interest to teachers who play a role model for young people. Depression and alcohol problems were particularly studied as they may influence smoking(More)
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