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Estrogen has been shown to influence several brain functions as well as the expression of neuropsychiatric diseases. To date, two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes have been identified, ERalpha and ERbeta. ERalpha messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) distribution in the human forebrain was recently characterized, and the highest expression was found in(More)
Estrogen is considered to play an important role in neuropsychiatric disorders and the estrogen receptors mediate the action of the hormone. In the present study, the messenger RNA expression pattern of the estrogen receptor alpha subtype was identified in the post mortem human brain. High stringent in situ hybridization histochemistry was performed using a(More)
The steroid hormone estrogen influences brain function and neuropsychiatric disorders, but neuroanatomical information about the estrogen receptors (ERs) are rather limited. The main focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of the ER distribution and possible function in the human brain. The ERs are ligand activated(More)
The human estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene is transcribed from multiple promoters, generating mRNA isoforms with unique 5' ends in the untranslated region. In the present study, alternative promoters were shown to regulate the ERalpha gene expression in different neuronal populations of the human brain. By using in situ hybridization histochemistry, the A(More)
In this review, estrogenic effects in depression, anxiety, and neurodegenerative disorders are summarized. Moreover, preclinical findings from in vitro and animal models are discussed. There is a correlation between decreased estrogen levels (e.g., premenstrually, during the postpartum period, and perimenopausally) and increased anxiety and depressive(More)
In the present study, estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ER beta genes were found to be differentially expressed in discrete subregions of the rat amygdaloid complex. The amygdala nuclei showing predominant ER alpha mRNA expression included the posterolateral cortical nucleus, amygdala hippocampal area, and lateral dorsolateral nucleus, whereas the amygdala(More)
In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to investigate acute estrogen effects on serotonin 5HT1A receptor mRNA levels in limbic-related brain areas in the female ovariectomized rat. Acute administration of 17 beta-estradiol (10 micrograms) decreased 5HT1A receptor mRNA expression levels within the medial amygdala (after 2 and 24 h), piriform cortex(More)
The possible link between estrogen and serotonin (5-HT) in depression was investigated using a genetic animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, in comparison to control Flinders Resistant Line rats. The mRNA levels of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta subtypes and the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors were analyzed in(More)
BACKGROUND There is an increased risk for depressive symptoms and affective disorders in individuals who experience drastic drops or fluctuations of gonadal hormones. Moreover, clinical studies indicate that estrogens have the potential to be effective in treating depression. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW Possible underlying mechanisms for the antidepressant(More)
Acute 17beta-estradiol treatment had been shown to downregulate the 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA expression in limbic areas of the female rat brain. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of chronic 17beta-estradiol treatment on 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA expression and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in ovariectomized female rats. Using in situ(More)