Marie-Josée Fortin

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Measures of genetic structure among individuals or populations collected at different spatial locations across a landscape are commonly used as surrogate measures of functional (i.e. demographic or genetic) connectivity. In order to understand how landscape characteristics influence functional connectivity, resistance surfaces are typically created in a(More)
In ecological field surveys, observations are gathered at different spatial locations. The purpose may be to relate biological response variables (e.g., species abundances) to explanatory environmental variables (e.g., soil characteristics). In the absence of prior knowledge, ecologists have been taught to rely on systematic or random sampling designs. If(More)
Landscape features exist at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and these naturally affect spatial genetic structure and our ability to make inferences about gene flow. This article discusses how decisions about sampling of genotypes (including choices about analytical methods and genetic markers) should be driven by the scale of spatial genetic(More)
A large number of methods for the analysis of the spatial structure of natural phenomena (for example, the clumping or overdispersion of tree stems, the positions of veins of ore in a rock formation, the arrangement of habitat patches in a landscape, and so on) have been developed in a wide range of scientific fields. This paper reviews many of the methods(More)
The Mantel test is widely used to test the linear or monotonic independence of the elements in two distance matrices. It is one of the few appropriate tests when the hypothesis under study can only be formulated in terms of distances; this is often the case with genetic data. In particular, the Mantel test has been widely used to test for spatial(More)
Maintaining and restoring connectivity among high-quality habitat patches is recognized as an important goal for the conservation of animal populations. To provide an efficient measure of potential connectivity pathways in heterogeneous landscapes, least-cost route analysis has been combined with graph-theoretical techniques. In this study we use spatially(More)
Understanding the genetic basis of species adaptation in the context of global change poses one of the greatest challenges of this century. Although we have begun to understand the molecular basis of adaptation in those species for which whole genome sequences are available, the molecular basis of adaptation is still poorly understood for most non-model(More)
Well-founded methods to assess habitat connectivity are essential to inform land management decisions that include conservation and restoration goals. Indeed, to be able to develop a conservation plan that maintains animal movement through a fragmented landscape, spatial locations of habitat and paths among them need to be represented. Graph-based(More)
Landscape genetics plays an increasingly important role in the management and conservation of species. Here, we highlight some of the opportunities and challenges in using landscape genetic approaches in conservation biology. We first discuss challenges related to sampling design and introduce several recent methodological developments in landscape genetics(More)
Graph theory, network theory, and circuit theory are increasingly being used to quantify multiple aspects of habitat connectivity and protected areas. There has been an explosive proliferation of network (connectivity) measures, resulting in over 60 measures for ecologists to now choose from. Conceptual clarification on the ecological meaning of these(More)