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We evaluated 2 strains of mice for their utility in the investigation of nutritional and molecular regulatory mechanisms of lactation. The lactational performance and milk composition were characterized for an inbred mouse strain, inbred Quackenbush Swiss line 5 (QSi5) selected persistently for fecundity, and a nonselected strain, CBA. The milk yield(More)
Glycosylceramides in mammalian species are thought to be present in the form of β-anomers. This conclusion was reinforced by the identification of only one glucosylceramide and one galactosylceramide synthase, both β-transferases, in mammalian genomes. Thus, the possibility that small amounts of α-anomers could be produced by an alternative enzymatic(More)
The paucity of pathogenic T cells in circulating blood limits the information delivered by bulk analysis. Toward diagnosis and monitoring of treatments of autoimmune diseases, we have devised single-cell analysis approaches capable of identifying and characterizing rare circulating CD4 T cells.
Vaccines targeting glycan structures at the surface of pathogenic microbes must overcome the inherent T cell-independent nature of immune responses against glycans. Carbohydrate conjugate vaccines achieve this by coupling bacterial polysaccharides to a carrier protein that recruits heterologous CD4 T cells to help B cell maturation. Yet they most often(More)
The nature of the endogenous ligands for natural killer T (NKT) cells has been debated for more than a decade. Because the mammalian glycosylceramide synthases are invertases, it is believed that in mammals all glycosylceramides are β anomers. However, the possibility that an alternative enzymatic pathway, an unfaithful enzyme, or unique physico-chemical(More)
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